fill-in notes.  insolation = incoming solar radiation (sunlight)  angle of insolation: angle...

Download FILL-IN NOTES.  Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight)  Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon  Duration of Insolation:

Post on 16-Dec-2015




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  • Insolation = INcoming SOLar RadiATION (sunlight) Angle of Insolation: Angle of the sun above the horizon Duration of Insolation: Length of time from sunrise to sunset that the sun is in the sky
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  • Absorption of Insolation: Taking in of sunlight Reflection of Insolation: Process in which energy waves bounce off a surface or interface/boundary Terrestrial Radiation: the longer infrared heat waves radiated by Earth
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  • The strength of insolation depends on: the angle of insolation, the duration of insolation, and the type of surface the insolation strikes The noon sun has the greatest angle of insolation
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  • In the N Hemisphere the lowest noontime angle of insolation is reached at the winter solstice Vertical ray: sunlight that strikes Earths surface at an angle of 90 degrees, which occurs everyday at noon somewhere in the tropics
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  • As the angle of insolation and the duration of insolation increases, temperatures at Earths surface increase Duration of insolation varies greatly with latitude
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  • Earth absorbs most of the sunlight that falls on it Ozone and other gases in the upper atmosphere absorb high-energy radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays
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  • Long-wave radiation, such as infrared, is absorbed by water and carbon dioxide Some absorbed energy is changed into heat waves that reradiate back into the atmosphere
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  • Under normal conditions in the Pacific, water moves upward from deep ocean currents along western S.A. This cold water is rich in oxygen and nutrients
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  • When there is less upward movement and the warmer surface is not as productive, there are less fish/plants Usually happens around Christmas It can create extra rainfall in the Eastern Pacific and droughts in the Western Pacific
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  • El Nino shows the strong influence of oceans on the atmosphere
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  • El Nino: A warming event that is caused by warm ocean currents that result in major climatic consequences around the world
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  • La Nina: Exceptionally cold water in the Pacific Ocean that affects worldwide climate Global warming: Since the early 1980s, there has been a trend of rising temperatures
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  • Clouds reflect roughly half of the light falling on them Ice and snow reflect a large amount of insolation and absorb very little
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  • Black road surfaces generally absorb over 90% of the solar energy Calm water is a good reflector when the sun is low, but absorbs most of the sunlight when the sun is high in the sky
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  • Energy waves sent back into space from Earths surface are longer in wavelength than energy waves in the range of visible light emitted from the sun Longer infrared heat waves are absorbed by gases such as CO2 and water vapor
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  • This traps the heat and is known as the greenhouse effect Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be too cold for most familiar forms of life Too much greenhouse effect can make it too hot
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  • We are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by cutting down forests, burning fossil fuels, and increasing methane amounts (by- product of petroleum and decaying organic matter)
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  • A time lag exists between the time of greatest intensity of insolation and the highest air temperature This occurs because insolation energy is first absorbed by Earths surface and then re- radiated as heat energy that warms the air Lag means delay
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  • At noon- incoming radiation reaches a max, and the ground continues to absorb energy for 2-3 more hours than it radiates Once Earth radiates more than it absorbs from the sun, Earth cools The daily high temp. usually happens around 2-3 pm
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  • Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect


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