figure 45.4 major endocrine glands: hypothalamus pineal gland pituitary gland thyroid gland...

Download Figure 45.4 Major endocrine glands: Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands (behind thyroid) Adrenal glands (atop kidneys)

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Figure 45.4

Figure 45.4Major endocrine glands:HypothalamusPineal glandPituitary glandThyroid glandParathyroid glands(behind thyroid)Adrenal glands(atop kidneys)PancreasOvaries (female)Testes (male)Organs containingendocrine cells:ThymusHeartLiverStomachKidneysSmallintestine1Figure 45.4 Major human endocrine glands.

Figure 45.5Lipid-soluble (hydrophobic)Water-soluble (hydrophilic)PolypeptidesSteroids0.8 nmInsulinCortisolAminesEpinephrineThyroxine2Figure 45.5 Hormones differ in structure and solubility.

Figure 45.6-2Lipid-solublehormoneSECRETORYCELLWater-solublehormoneVIABLOODSignal receptorTARGETCELLORCytoplasmicresponseGeneregulation(a)(b)CytoplasmicresponseGeneregulationSignalreceptorTransportproteinNUCLEUS3Figure 45.6 Receptor location varies with hormone type.

Figure 45.8-2EXTRACELLULARFLUIDHormone(estradiol)Estradiol(estrogen)receptorPlasmamembraneHormone-receptorcomplexNUCLEUSDNACYTOPLASMVitellogeninmRNAfor vitellogenin4Figure 45.8 Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression.

Figure 45.11PathwayExampleStimulusLow pH in duodenumEndocrinecellS cells of duodenumsecrete the hormonesecretin ( ).HormoneBloodvesselTargetcellsPancreasResponseBicarbonate releaseNegative feedback5Figure 45.11 A simple endocrine pathway.

Figure 45.12PathwayExampleStimulusSucklingSensoryneuronPositive feedbackHypothalamus/posterior pituitaryNeurosecretory cellNeurohormoneBlood vesselTargetcellsResponsePosterior pituitarysecretes theneurohormoneoxytocin ( ).Smooth muscle inbreastsMilk release6Figure 45.12 A simple neuroendocrine pathway.

Figure 45.13Body cellstake up moreglucose.InsulinBeta cells ofpancreasrelease insulininto the blood.Liver takesup glucose and stores itas glycogen.Blood glucoselevel declines.Blood glucoselevel rises.Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(70110 mg/m100mL)STIMULUS:Blood glucose level rises (for instance, after eating acarbohydrate-rich meal).Liver breaksdown glycogenand releasesglucose intothe blood.Alpha cells of pancreasrelease glucagon intothe blood.GlucagonSTIMULUS:Blood glucose level falls (for instance, afterskipping a meal).7Figure 45.13 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon.

Figure 45.14PinealglandCerebellumSpinal cordCerebrumThalamusHypothalamusPituitaryglandPosteriorpituitaryAnteriorpituitaryHypothalamus8Figure 45.14 Endocrine glands in the human brain. Involvement of brain = CONTROL and COORDINATION

Figure 45.15Neurosecretorycells of thehypothalamusNeurohormonePosteriorpituitaryHypothalamusAxonsAnteriorpituitaryHORMONETARGETADHOxytocinKidneytubulesMammary glands,uterine muscles9Figure 45.15 Production and release of posterior pituitary hormones.

Figure 45.16Tropic effects only:FSHLHTSHACTHNontropic effects only:ProlactinMSHNontropic and tropic effects:GHHypothalamicreleasing andinhibitinghormonesPosteriorpituitaryNeurosecretorycells of thehypothalamusPortal vesselsEndocrine cellsof the anteriorpituitaryPituitaryhormonesHORMONEFSH and LHTSHACTHProlactinMSHGHTARGETThyroidMelanocytesTestes orovariesAdrenalcortexMammaryglandsLiver, bones,other tissues10Figure 45.16 Production and release of anterior pituitary hormones. TROPIC HORMONES from anterior pituitary target other endocrine organsTable 45.1

11Table 45.1 Major Human Endocrine Glands and Some of Their Hormones

Figure 45.20-2Activevitamin DIncreases Ca2uptake inintestinesStimulates Ca2uptake in kidneysStimulates Ca2 releasefrom bonesParathyroidgland (behindthyroid)PTHBlood Ca2level rises.Homeostasis:Blood Ca2 level(about 10 mg/100 mL)STIMULUS:Falling bloodCa2 level12Figure 45.20 The roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals.

Figure 45.21Spinal cord(cross section)(a)(b)Long-term stress responseand the adrenal cortexShort-term stress responseand the adrenal medullaStressNervesignalsNervecellReleasinghormoneHypothalamusAnterior pituitaryBlood vesselNerve cellACTHAdrenal medullasecretes epinephrineand norepinephrine.AdrenalglandKidneyAdrenal cortexsecretes mineralo-corticoids andglucocorticoids.Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine:Effects of mineralocorticoids:Effects of glucocorticoids:Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucoseIncreased blood pressure Increased breathing rateIncreased metabolic rateChange in blood flow patterns, leading toincreased alertness and decreased digestive,excretory, and reproductive system activity Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys Increased blood volume and blood pressure Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose Partial suppression of immune system13Figure 45.21 Stress and the adrenal gland.

Figure 49.8Parasympathetic divisionAction on target organs:Constricts pupilof eyeStimulates salivarygland secretionConstrictsbronchi in lungsSlows heartStimulates activityof stomach andintestinesStimulates activityof pancreasStimulatesgallbladderPromotes emptyingof bladderPromotes erectionof genitaliaCervicalThoracicLumbarSynapseSacralSympatheticgangliaSympathetic divisionAction on target organs:Dilates pupil of eyeAccelerates heartInhibits salivarygland secretionRelaxes bronchiin lungsInhibits activity ofstomach and intestinesInhibits activityof pancreasStimulates glucoserelease from liver;inhibits gallbladderStimulatesadrenal medullaInhibits emptyingof bladderPromotes ejaculationand vaginal contractions14Figure 49.8 The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

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