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Fermented milk products


PRESENTATION ONFermented milk products Their nutritional & therapeutic value

Submitted to:-Asst. Prof. Anuj Gautam.Course code:-RAWECourse title:-Rural Agriculture Work Experience Credit hour:- (0+4)Submitted by:-ABHINAV VIVEKID No.- R-13001B.Sc.(Ag.) 4th Yr., INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCES, BHU


STATUS OF THE DAIRY SECTOR IN INDIA.The Oyster of global dairy industry, 1st in global milk production & accounts for 18.5 per cent of world milk production.

World milk production- 765 million tonnes (2013) 789 million tonnes (2014)

Increase by 3.1 per cent.-FAO.Source: Press Information Bureau.3

Source: Press Information Bureau.4

Source: Press Information Bureau.5

Source: Basic Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Statistics 2015.6

Source: Basic Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Statistics 2015 & PIB.7

Source: Basic Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Statistics 2015.8

.The per capita availability of milk in INDIA- 322 grams per day (2014-15) WORLD- 294 grams per day(2013-14).

ImportExportQuantity (Tonnes)9973.799159250.065Value (Crores)213.65564233325.836423

Indian dairy Sector business (2013-14)

Source: Basic Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Statistics 2015.9


A metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate such as starch and sugar into alcohol and/or acid. Example- Yeast.




In 1850s and 1860s Louis Pasteur became the first scientist to study fermentation when he demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation was caused by living organism.





NAMETYPE OF MILKMICROBES INVOLVEDYoghurtCows MilkSteptococcus thermophilus, L. acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus.Curd (Dahi)Cows or Buffalos MilkL. lactis ssp. Lactis, Streptococcus lactisL.delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus,L. plantarumS. thermophilus, S. cremoris, Lactococci sp.Cultured butter milkBuffalos or Cows milkS. lactis subsp. Diacetylactis, S. cremorisLactococcus lactis ssp. Diacetylactis, Leuconostoc sp.LassiBuffalos or Cows milkL. bulgaricusAcidophilus MilkCows MilkL. AcidophilusShrikhand / ChakkaBuffalos or Cows milkS. thermophilus, L. bulgaricusCheeseCows, Buffalos, goats milk, sheep milkL. lactis subsp. lactis, L. lactis subsp. cremoris, L.lactis ssp. diacetylactis, S. thermophilus, L. delbueckii ssp. Bulgaricus, Priopionibacterium shermanii, Penicillium roqueforti etc.KefirSheeps, cows, goats or mixed milkLactobacillus kefir, Torula kefir, S. kefir,Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acidophilus,Saccharomyces.


Lactococcus lactis

Streptococcus cremoris

Penicillium roqueforti

Lactobacillus casei

Lactobacillus plantarum

Lactobacillus acidophilus14


YOGHURTA coagulated milk product obtained by lactic acid fermentation of milk through the action of S.salivarius ssp. thermophilus and L.delbrueckii ssp.Bulgaricus with or without addition of whole milk powder or skimmed milk powder or whey powder. The desirable microorganisms in the final product must be viable and abundant. -FAO / WHO (1976).15

PRODUCTION OF YOGHURT Raw materials (milk)Clarification Standardization


Heat treatment at 90 to 95oc for 5minsPasteurisation (30 min at 85C / 10 min at 95C)

Cooling (42oC)Inoculation Fermentation (till acidity is 0.85 to 0.90 per cent)

Addition of fruit / flavourCooling & Mixing (5-22oC) PackagingFinal Cooling (5oC)Storage etc.


NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF YOGHURT Energy97 K CalCarbohydrates3.98 gFat5.0 gProtein9.0 gVitamin A44 gVitamin B10.023 mgVit.B20.278 mgVit. B30.208 mgVit. B50.331 mgVit. B60.063 mgVit. B120.75 gMagnesium11.0 mgManganese0.009 mgPhosphorus135 mgPotassium141 mgSodium35 mgZinc0.52 mgWater81.3 g

Nutritional values per 100grams17

Therapeutic values of YoghurtImmunity development.

Beneficial to your heart.

Cures arthritis.

May help certain gastrointestinal conditions, including: Lactose intolerance, Constipation, Diarrhoea, Colon cancer & Inflammatory bowel disease.


INDIAN CURD (DAHI)A semi solid portion obtained from pasteurized/ boiled milk by souring using a harmless lactic acid bacteria or other bacterial culture. -PFA (1955)

Types of DahiMaximum acidity (%)Dominating cultureSweet0.7Streptococcus sp.Sour1.0Lactobacilli sp.


Preparation of DahiReceiving milkPre- heating (35-40oC)Filteration / ClarificationStandardisation (2.5-3% fat / 10% SNF)

Pre- heating (60oC). [Continue heating till quantity of milk is reduced by half and then add appropriate amount of sugar in it and stir till it dissolves fully to prepare Mishti Doi.]

Homogenisation (65-70oC)Pasteurization (80-90oC for 15-30 mins)Cooling (22-25oC)

Inoculation (with 1-3% of specific starter culture)Packaging (in plastic cups, bottles etc.Incubation (22-25oC for 10-14 hours till acidity reaches 0.6-0.8 %)Curd (Dahi)

Cooling & Storage (5oC)


Composition of Indian Curd / Dahi (percentage)

WaterProteinFatLactoseAshAcidity85 - 883.2 3.45 - 84.6 5.20.70 0.720.5 1.1

Nutritional values of Indian Curd / Dahi (Per 100 gm)

FatCarbohydrateProteinCholesterolSodiumPotassium4.3 g3.4 g11 g17 g364 g104 g

It also contains vitamin A, D, B12, calcium and magnesium.21

Therapeutic values of Indian Curd / Dahi

Aids the digestive system.

Responsible for stronger bone and teeth.

Rejuvenates the skin.

Good for scalp & hair.22


A semi- solid, sweetish- sour fermented milk product, prepared from dahi. It may contain fruits, nuts, sugar, cardamom, saffron and other spices.23

Preparation of ShrikhandReceiving milkPre- heating (35-40oC)Filteration / Clarification

Standardisation (6% fat / 10% SNF)Pasteurization at 71oC for 10 minsCooling (28-30oC)Inoculation (with 1-3% of specific starter culture)Incubation (28-30oC for 15-16 hours till acidity reaches 0.6-0.8 %)Curd (Dahi)

Hanging in muslin cloth for the removal of whey for 8-10 hours ChakkaMixed with sugar and well kneaded for uniform mixing, flavors, nuts, fruits, herbs and spices may also be addedSrikhand, served chilled.


Nutritional composition of Chakka & Srikhand (percentage)

ProductMoistureFatProteinLactoseAshSugarLactic acidChakka59.622.410.34.41.0-2.3Shrikhand Wadi6.57.47.715.90.862.91.0

The nutritional and therapeutic values of chakka & srikhand are more or less the same as that of Indian Curd (Dahi).


LASSI A white to creamy white, viscous liquid with a sweetish, rich aroma and mild to high acidic taste. It is flavored either with salt or sugar and other condiments depending on regional preferences.26

Preparation of LassiIndian Curd (Dahi)Breaking of curd by agitationAddition of sugar syrup (12-15%)Addition of flavor (rose flavor) HomogenizationMixing well, standing for 1 hr and then packing

The nutritional & therapeutic value of Lassi is more of less the same as that of Indian Curd (Dahi) except Lassi having higher quantity of sugar in it.



These are sour milk products in which milk is allowed to ferment under conditions that favour the growth and development of larger number of Lactobacillus acidophilus alone or in combination with other lactic acid bacteria or lactose fermenting yeasts.


Preparation of Acidophilus milk

Receiving milkPre- heating (35-40oC)Filteration / Clarification

Standardization SterilizationCooling (40oC)

Culture preparation (L. acidophilus)Inoculation (1-2% starter culture) at 37oC at PH 4.8PackagingIncubation (37 1C till setting)Cold storage (5 C)


Nutritional composition of Acidophilus milk (per cup-240 ml)

COMPONENTSAMOUNT% VALUECalories110-Fat3 g4Cholesterol10 mg3Sodium130 mg5Carbohydrates13 g4Protein8 g16Vitamin A-10Vitamin C-2Vitamin D-25Calcium-30

* Per cent daily values are based on a 2,000 calories diet.30

Therapeutic values of Acidophilus milk.

Relieves from various gastrointestinal disorders.Possible improvement in immune status. Lower proliferation of cancerous cells. Possible lowering of blood cholesterol.31

Buttermilk is really the liquid left from butter making. However, cultured buttermilk is a fermented milk product made from pasteurized skim milk low fat milk in which mesophilic lactic acid bacteria is added as starter.Cultured Buttermilk32

Preparation of Cultured Butter milk

Skimmed or Low- fat milkCooling (22oC)Inoculation by starter culture @ 1-3 % for 12 14 hoursPackaging Pasteurization at 82-88oC for 10 30 mins.Gentle stirring to break the curd and cooling to 7.2oC in order to stop fermentationStorage under referigeration


Composition of Cultured Butter milk (in percentage)WaterProteinFatAshSugar90.

Rich in Vit.B12, Potassium, Calcium, Riboflavin, Phosphorus, Zinc & Probiotics.

Deficient in Iron, Vit. C and dietary fibre.34

Therapeutic properties of Cultured Butter milk

Responsible for healthy gastro-intesti