fermented cereal products 2
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*Fermented Cereal ProductsBread
*BreadA staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking --- Wikipedia
Food made of flour, water, and yeast or another leavening agent, mixed together and baked --- Google
A staple food made from flour or meal mixed with other dry and liquid ingredients, usually combined with a leavening agent, and kneaded, shaped into loaves, and baked. --- Thefreedictionary
Mixing and kneading the dough FermentationCutting, "resting" and gas reproductionMolding Baking SlicingPackaging Fermentation
Lactic acid bacteriaSaccharomyces cerevisiae Leuconostoc mesentoroides In breadmaking, fermentation involves two microorganisms
**Roles of YeastIncreases dough volumeDevelops structure and textureImparts distinctive flavor to the breadEnhances the nutritive value of the product
Roles of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Produce lactic acidProduce flavoring compounds
BREADMAKINGMicroorganisms involvedSaccharomyces cerevisiaeLeuconostoc mesenteroides
Leavening is performed by yeastLonger fermentation will produce more acids, resulting in a tendency of dough collapse
During fermentation, dough "conditioning" takes place. Conditioning is a result of the action of gluten induced by the following:a. proteolytic enzymesb. pH reduction due to acid production
Dough ConditionersAmmonium salts, which are sometimes used to stimulate the yeastSugars, which are usually added in the formulation for activity of yeast
NOTESThe rate of gas production by yeast can be increased by the addition of the following: More yeast Sugar or amylase-bearing malt Yeast food
On the other hand, gas production is decreased by the following: Salt addition Addition of too much yeast food Use of too high or too low a temperature
Production Steps(see separate handout about bread making)Additional notes about Baking Step
Fermented Rice CakePUTO
Generally served with grated coconutBreakfast and snack foodTypes: plain and special
a leavened, steamed rice cake made from year-old rice grains which are soaked, ground with water, and allowed to undergo a natural acid and gas fermentation
Production StepsInitial CookingGrindingDraining of ground slurry (galapong)Preparation of starter (lebadura)Fermentation (1st stage) mixing of lebadura and galapongAddition of sugar and lyeFermentation (2nd stage)
Control of ProcessRice high or medium amylose contentSoaking time or hydration factor of rice is 3 4 hoursFermentation temperature of 28 30 C in about 42 hours; can be shortened to about 21 hours using prepared starterAddition of lye reduces acidity of the productUse of proper cover during steaming.
Identified Fermenting MicroorganismsThe predominant organisms were always composed of:Leuconostoc mesenteroides (45 89%)Streptococcus faecalis (20 50%)Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 18% of the population at the end of fermentation.)
Changes in MicrofloraStarter (a) aerobic colonies of bacteria and yeast (early stages), (b) predominant LAB and yeast (later stage)Drained flour absence of aerobic colonies; presence of acid-forming1st stage of fermentation consists of LAB and few yeast colonies2nd stage of fermentation dominated by yeasts.
Physical ChangesAcid development by S. faecalisLeavening by S. cerevisiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroidesAmylose content main factor affecting gloss, cohesiveness, and tenderness of cooked riceHigh amylose content rice varieties give higher yield and greater volume than low amylose content varieties.
Biochemical ChangesChanges in rice during storageOld rice is more flaky than freshly harvested riceFresh rice (upon cooking), loses more solids to the cooking water than storedNon-reducing sugar decreased while reducing sugars increased.Slight drop in pH for stored rice.a
2. Changes in pH and Total AcidityStarter: pH decreases from 6.0 to 4.2TA (%lactate) 0.3 to 0.62- 0.66%Drained rice flour after 24 hourspH 3.9 to 4.12; TA (%LA) 0.34 0.42%Fermenting Mixture1st stage pH: 4.4 to 4.10%; %LA 0.40 0.59%2nd stage pH 7.0 decreased to pH 6.12 6.25; %LA (final) = 0.24 0.28%
Nutritional Value251 calories / 100g3.5% protein content56% carbohydrates
BIBINGKAMethod of fermentation is the same as in putoCooked by baking or roastingCooked in a moulder (bibingkahan) lined with banana leavesClassified as ordinary and special types.