fermented alcoholic beverages

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  • Fermented Alcoholic Beverages

  • Fermented Alcoholic Beverage

    A liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent produced by fermentation.

  • Starter CulturesSaccharomyces cerevisiae fruit wines, beer, sake, whiskey

    Saccharomyces uvarumbeer

    Aspergillus oryzaesake

  • I. Sugar-Based Fermented BeveragesFruit WinesSugarcane wine (basi)LambanogBrandy

  • 1. FRUIT WINESFermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs.(This definition is a broadened one to include any fermented alcoholic beverage EXCEPT beer.)Wine fermented from fruits other than grapes. EXCEPT

  • 1. Preparation of fruit must 2. Fermentation3. Harvesting 4. Bottling5. Aging

    Steps in Fruit Wine Production

  • Preparation of Fruit Must NOTE: Most critical stage in wine making

    Steps Juice extraction/productionDepends on the type of fruit2. Treatment of juiceBy either boiling or chemical methods.3...

  • Boiling Chemical Methods (Use of sodium or potassium metabisulfite) Advantages Facilitates juice extraction Promotes glycerol formation Prevents enzymatic browning of must Helps preserve Vitamin C DisadvantagesLoss of most vitamins Harmful if added in large amounts Destruction of polyphenol Destroys Vitamin B Inactivates pectinase Cooked-flavor development Flavor and aroma dissipation Comparison of Treatment Methods

  • Preparation of fruit must NOTE: Most critical stage in wine making

    Steps Juice extraction/productionDepends on the type of fruit2. Treatment of juiceBy either boiling or chemical methods.3. Adjustment of acid and sugar content

  • Adjustment of acid and sugar content

    Acidity of wine Essential in conferring to wine good keeping properties and resistance to bacterial attack, in balancing fermentation, and in flavor production during fermentation.

    Sugar The most basic and most important constituent of all wine must

  • Preparation of fruit must 2. Fermentation3. Harvesting 4. Bottling5. Aging

    Steps in Fruit Wine Production

  • NotesIn fruit wine fermentation,

    Pulp fermentation is useful in the production of red wine Juice fermentation is normally use in white wine processing

  • Factors Affecting FermentationRaw materialStrain of microorganismTemperatureOxygen requirementType of Sugar

  • Preparation of fruit must 2. Fermentation3. Harvesting 4. Bottling5. Aging

    Steps in Fruit Wine Production

  • NotesDuring harvesting, wine is siphoned into clean jars. Care must be taken not to agitate the jar fermentation vessel so as not to disturb the sediments. 5 ml of 10% sodium metabisulfite per gallon of wine is added to the siphoned wine. The jars are then filled up to the brim, tightly covered to prevent access of oxygen, and stored in a cool dry place for at least 6 months to mature.The mature wine is placed in clean wine bottles and covered with a cork or similar closure system. Finally, the bottles are fitted with a cap seal and aged.

  • 2. BASIA traditional fermented alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane, which is produced in the northern part of Luzon in the Philippines.

    A traditional alcoholic beverage from the northern part of Luzon. Light tan to yellowish with a sweet-sour taste Types: Basi babae (sweet, 29-33 Brix)Basi lalake (dry and bitter, 27-28 Brix)

  • Control of Basi Production ProcessUse of mature sugarcaneAddition of binubudan is preferredMaintenance of anaerobic condition during fermentationLong boiling time to convert sucrose into fermentable sugar.


    A Philippine alcoholic beverage that is a distillate of fermented coconut sap (tuba). Most commonly described as coconut wine or coconut vodka. Known for its potency and high alcohol content (80 and 90 proof).

  • Steps in Lambanog ProductionCoconut sap collection Fermentation into tubaDistillation of tuba into lambanog

  • 4. BRANDY

    Aspiritproduced bydistillingwine

    A shortened form of brandywine, which comes from the Dutchword brandewijn, derived from phrase "gebrande wijn or "burned wine")Generally contains 3560%ABV(70120US proof) and isTypically taken as anafter-dinner drink

  • II. Starch-Based Fermented BeveragesRice wine (tapuy)Japanese rice wine (sake)BeerWhiskey


    A clear full-bodied traditional alcoholic rice wine originating fromBanaue and theMountain Province with a strong alcoholic flavor, moderate sweetness and a lingering taste.

    Produced from either pureglutinous rice or a combination of glutinous and non-glutinous rice together withonuadroots, ginger extract, and a powdered starter culture locally known asbubod.


    Name derived fromtapai, a fermented rice dish found in most ofSoutheast AsiaAlcohol content is 28 proof. Has no sulfites (which are preservatives found in other wines) that sometimes cause adverse reactions like hang-over and allergies.Not diluted with water and has no sugar added.Used for important occasions such as weddings, rice harvest ceremonies, fiestas and cultural fairs.Characteristics depend on the process and ingredients used by each manufacturer.


    WeighingWashing and cooking of selected riceCoolingInoculation with a natural starter culture(bubod)Natural pre-fermentation Natural fermentationHarvest Pasteurization Aging FiltrationClarification before bottling. PPasteurizationSealing.


    Sake, a Japanese alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice; usually served hot

    Made from the following ingredients: rice, water, yeast, and a mold known as koji-kin or Koji mold. BUT the land and craftsman expertise determine the quality of sake as well.

  • Steps in Sake ProductionWashing and soaking of riceSteam-cooking of riceKoji preparationPreparation of moto mashPreparation of moromi mashPressingFiltrationPasteutizationAgingBottling

  • RiceThe rice used for brewing sake is calledshuz ktekimai. Has larger and stronger grains and contains less protein and lipid than ordinary Japanese rice. Has a starch component calledshinpakuat the center of the grains. Rice is polished to remove the proteinandoilsfrom the exterior of the rice grains, leaving behindonly starch. Thorough milling generally leads to a more desirable product. This rice is used only for sake making, because it is unpalatable.

  • RiceNewly polished rice is allowed to "rest" until it has absorbed enough moisture from the air so that it will not crack when immersed in water. After resting, the rice is washed clean of the rice powder produced during milling and then steeped in water. The length of time depends on the degree to which the rice was polished, from several hours or even overnight for ordinary milling to just minutes for highly polished rice.

  • RiceAfter soaking, the rice is steamed on a conveyor belt. This converts starch to its alpha form and denatures protein. The degree of cooking must be carefully controlled. Overcooked rice will ferment too quickly for flavors to develop well and undercooked rice will only ferment on the outside. The steamed rice is then cooled and divided into portions for different uses: moto mash and moromi mash.There are at least 80 types of sake rice in Japan, e.g.,Yamadanishiki, Gohyakumangoku, Miyamanishiki and Omachi are very popular.

  • WaterOne of the important ingredients in sake making. Should be colorless, tasteless and odorlessShould be neutral or weakly alkaline with only a trace amount of FeMineral content plays a large role in the final product. Iron will bond with anamino acid produced by the koji to produce off flavors and a yellowish color. Manganese, when exposed to ultraviolet light, will also contribute to discoloration. Potassium,magnesium, andphosphoric acidserve as nutrients for yeast during fermentation and are considered desirable. Yeast will use those nutrients to work faster and multiply, resulting in more sugar being converted into alcohol.

  • WaterHard water, with a higher nutrient content for yeast, is known for producing adrier-style sake, while soft water will typically yield sweeter sake.The first region known for having great water isNada-GoginHyogo Prefecture. Here, a particular water source called miyamizu" was found to produce high quality sake and attracted many producers to the region. To this day Hyogo has the most sake brewers of any prefecture.Typically breweries source their water from wells, though lakes and rivers can be used as well. Also breweries may use tap water and filter and adjust components as they see fit.

  • Sake BrewingSake is produced by multiple parallel fermentation. The moldAspergillus oryzaeis sprinkled onto steamed rice, which is allowed to ferment for 57 days. After this initial fermentation period, water and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeare added to the koji (rice and mold mixture)and allowed to incubate at 4C for about 7 days.This is called the moto mash.Over the next four days, a pre-incubated mixture of steamed rice (90kg), fermented rice (90kg) and water (440 L) are added to the fermented mixture in three series. The resulting mixture is now called the main mash or moromi mash.

  • Sake BrewingThe moromi mash then ferments at ~15-20 C for 23 weeks. For high-grade sake, fermentation is deliberately slowed by reducing temperature to 10C or less. Unlikemalt for beer, rice for sake does not contain theamylase necessary for converting starch to sugar; thus, it must undergomultiple fermentation. The