feminist stylistic

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Feminist Stylistic

Sara MillsFeminist StylisticShehar bano

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Sexism in LanguageMary Vetterling BragginA statement is a sexist if it contributes to, encourages or causes or results in women oppression.

Generic PronounsHeHe-man language.Mackey: so called generic he is confusing.Gender specific nouns are often used in a sexist way to refer people.

Generic NounsMANkindMan is a mammal which breastfeeds his young.Replacement of man with person.SalesmanUse of prefix and affixThe word gentleman.

Woman as a Marked formFemale is shown as the marked term whereas male is shown as the un-marked term.Lady is used to refer a womanLady poet, lady doctor etc.

Gender Free LanguageUse of plural pronoun.Use of s/he.Passivize.Use of female pronoun as generic.Use of male pronoun as generic.Use of alternative pronouns.

Language DeterminismDifference is structure of the languages determine the different views society has in world. E.g. snow.A language responds to the needs of community.Language produces our perception of the world.Our thought system is influenced by the language.

Wendy MartynaResearched the extent to which women feel excluded by the use of the male pronoun he as a generic reference to both male and female.

Sandra Bem

Reports studies where sex un-biased job advertisements have been found to encourage more high school females to apply for male related jobs.

Sexist LanguageIs that language use, conscious or unconscious on the part of speaker, which may alienate females (and males).Language choices that we have do impact on how we view the world.Sexist language dispute raged in 1960s and 1970s.Language is not simply for the communication of ideas but also for the creation and maintenance of environment.

Robin Lakoff

Sexism in language simply reflects sexism within the society and is a symptom rather than a cause.

Sarah ShutePeople cannot help to eliminate sexism merely by TALK, by replacing terms with other terms, but only by ACTIONS.

Mike BygraveThose who accuse others of sexism are speaking as if their own language use was purified and above approach.

FyreTo accuse a person of being sexist is to accuse him of certain false beliefs, and in some cases of having tendencies to certain reprehensible behavior presumed to be related one way or another to such beliefs.

Casey Miler and Kate SwiftThey see sexist language as symptomatic of large scale discrimination, but most sexism is unintentional and thus reform is possible.

Mary Daly

Dale Spender

Mary Daly and Dale SpenderThey see sexist language as a causal factor in womens oppression. Language is very important element in the formation of our world view. E.g.. By Spender MotherhoodLanguage is controlled by men.

CameronIn order to change sexist language it is not enough to reform the language use of individuals whom you meet; the change has to be at institutional level, at the level of gatekeepers of language.

The semantic derogation of womenThere are contrasting pair of words used in English language.One male specific other female specific.Female term has connotative meaning different from male term.

CamronMany languages have underlying semantic or grammatical rule where male is positive and female is negative.master_ mistressHost_ hostessAdventurer_ adventuressSir_ madamCourtier_ courtesanLord_ lady

ComparisonMaster, Sir, Bachelor, LordPowerPrestigeBachelor is positive connotation of freedom.Cleaning lord is not possibleMistress, Madam, Sinster, ladySexualNon prestigious meaning.Insulting meaning of old maid.Too ugly to find a husband1960s bachelor girl was introduced.Cleaning lady, lollipop lady.

We buy man sized tissuesWe eat man sized portions.Mr. Muscle and Mr. Clean as cleaning fluids.This shows man are stronger, bigger and better.Dont be such a womanWeak, tearful and fussy