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Evidence-Based OrthodonticsGreg J. Huang, Stephen Richmond & Katherine W.L. Vig
Evidence-Based Orthodontics satisfies the educational demands of orthodontics, which calls for the integration of the best research evidence with the clinicians expertise and the patients unique values and circumstances.
This landmark text is the first to be devoted to the methodology, principles, and practice of evidence-based practice in orthodontics. It aims to serve as a reference for those wishing to understand the principles of evidence-based practice, including the foundation for clinical study design, epidemiology, and the statistical inferences from data. The ability to define a search strategy from established databases and to identify relevant clinical and translational research in the scientific published literature requires a new approach in orthodontic education. Evidence-Based Orthodontics provides a contemporary approach to those strategies in clinical orthodontic practice. The growing ability to translate critical appraisals of evidence into clinical practice and evaluate clinical evidence for its validity and potential usefulness requires an understanding of basic elements in epidemiology and biostatistics.
Evidence-Based Orthodontics provides its readers with a cogent, clear resource with which to navigate and understand this important subject area. It provides students and practitioners of orthodontics with an indispensible guide to this vital tenet of education, research, and clinical practice.
Landmark text surveys the principles and practice of evidence-based orthodontics
Covers clinical study design, epidemiology, and understanding of statistical data
Equips readers with critical apparatus for understanding orthodontic literature
Reviews the available evidence and studies in orthodontics
Clear and cogent approach to clarify this vital area of study, research, and practice
Greg J. Huang, DMD, MSD, MPH is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Washington.
Stephen Richmond, BDS, DOrth RCS, MScD, FDSRCS, PhD is Professor of Orthodontics and Head of Applied Clinical Research and Public Health, Department of Applied Clinical Research and Public Health, at the University Dental Hospital at Cardiff University.
Katherine W. L. Vig, BDS, MS, DOrth RCS, FDSRCS is Professor Emeritus and former Chair of Orthodontics at The Ohio State University, College of Dentistry.
Cover design: Meaden Creative
9 780813 806143
Evidence-Based OrthodonticsHuang, Richm
ond & Vig
huang_9780813806143_pb.indd 1 25/2/11 10:08:11
Greg J. Huang, DMD, MSD, MPH
Stephen Richmond, BDS, DOrth RCS, MScD, FDSRCS, PhD, FHEA
Katherine W.L. Vig, BDS, MS, DOrth RCS, FDSRCS
A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication
This edition fi rst published 2011 2011 by Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Evidence-based orthodontics / edited by Greg J. Huang, Stephen Richmond, Katherine W.L. Vig. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8138-0614-3 (paperback : alk. paper) 1. Orthodontics. 2. Evidence-based dentistry. I. Huang, Greg J., editor. II. Richmond, Stephen, editor. III. Vig, Katherine W.L., editor. [DNLM: 1. Orthodontics. 2. Evidence-Based Dentistry. 3. Malocclusiontherapy. WU 440] RK521.E975 2011 617.6'43dc22 2010048237
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The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifi cally disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fi tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read.
Table of Contents
Foreword viiGordon Guyatt
Contributor List ix
Part 1 Principles 3
Chapter 1 A Historical Perspective of Evidence-Based Orthodontics 5Katherine W.L. Vig
Chapter 2 Clinical Research Designs 15Robert J. Weyant
Chapter 3 Electronic Searching for Clinical Trials Information 31Anne Littlewood
Part 2 Selected Topics 47
Chapter 4 The Treatment of Class II MalocclusionHave We the Evidence to Make Decisions? 49Kevin OBrien and Jonathan Sandler
Chapter 5 External Root Resorption and Orthodontic TreatmentAssessment of the Evidence 63Belinda J. Weltman
Chapter 6 Malocclusion, Orthodontic Treatment, and Periodontal HealthAn Assessment of the Evidence 89Anne-Marie Bollen
Chapter 7 Stability of Anterior Open Bite CorrectionAn Assessment of the Evidence 97Greg J. Huang and Geoffrey M. Greenlee
Chapter 8 Orthodontics and Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders 119Friederike Luther and Fraser McDonald
Chapter 9 Self-Ligation 135Padhraig S. Fleming
vi TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 10 Prevention of Demineralization During Orthodontic Treatment with Fluoride-Containing Materials or Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate 149Philip E. Benson
Chapter 11 Invisalign TherapyA Systematic Review of Lower Quality Evidence 167Jason M. Bressler, Stefanie Hamamoto, Gregory J. King, and Anne-Marie Bollen
Chapter 12 Retention 181Simon J. Littlewood, Declan T. Millett, David R. Bearn, Bridget Doubleday, and Helen V. Worthington
Chapter 13 Quality of Outcome 191Stephen Richmond and Alexei Zhurov
Chapter 14 Stability of Orthognathic Surgery 217Donald R. Joondeph
Chapter 15 Orthodontic Treatment of the Transverse DimensionAssessment of the Evidence 233Steven D. Marshall
Chapter 16 Class III MalocclusionThe Evidence on Diagnosis and Treatment 247Joseph G. Ghafari, Ramzi V. Haddad, and Maria E. Saadeh
Part 3 Evidence-Based Orthodontics in Perspective 281
Chapter 17 Evidence-Based Care in Context 283William Shaw
Chapter 18 Playing Doctor: Evidence-Based Orthodontics 293Lysle E. Johnston, Jr.
Chapter 19 Refl ections on a Decade of Evidence-Based Dentistry 301David L. Turpin
Evidence - based medicine (EBM) or evidence - based surgery, or evidence - based ortho-dontics (EBO) is about solving clinical problems. In particular, EBO provides tools for using the relevant literature to determine the benefi ts and risks of alternative patient man-agement strategies and to weigh those benefi ts and risks in the context of the individual patient s predicament