Everything you can feel is made of atoms - of 23 Everything you can feel is made of atoms! Chemistry! Our inquire into Everything you can feel is made of atoms will help us better understand:!
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Everything you can feel is made of atoms!Chemistry!
Our inquire into Everything you can feel is made of atoms will help us better understand:! That the difference between atoms, ions, and molecules is caused by the difference in
their structure and components! The classification of substances as acids, bases, and salts, based on their
characteristics, name, and formula! The difference between organic and inorganic compounds! Chemical reactions and the Law of conservation of mass ! How the rate of reaction is affected! Radioactivity using modern atomic theory
Vocabulary!acids, alpha particle, atomic number, atoms, bases, beta particle, Bohr diagrams, bromothymol blue,catalyst, combustion, compounds, concentration, conservation of mass, covalent bonding, daughter isotope, decomposition, electron, fission, fusion, gamma radiation, half-life, indigo carmine, inorganic, ionic bonding, ions, isotope,Lewis diagrams, light, litmus paper, mass number, methyl orange, molecules, neutralization (acid-base), neutron, organic, parent isotope, phenolphthalein, polyatomic, proton,radioactive decay, salts, single and double replacement, surface area, symbolic equations, synthesis, valence electron
Note:!If you lose this package it is your responsibility to print out a new copy from Ms. Veenstras
Chapter 4 Learning Goal!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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B D A E Reference
1. I can demonstrate knowledge of the three subatomic particles, their properties, and their location within the atom
2. I can define and give examples of ionic bonding and covalent bonding
3. I can with reference to elements 1 to 20 on the periodic table, draw and interpret Bohr models, including protons, neutrons, and electrons, of atoms (neutral), ions (charged), molecules - covalent bonding (e.g., O2, CH4
4. I can identify valence electrons using the periodic table Chapter 4.1
5. I can draw and interpret Lewis diagrams showing single bonds for!simple ionic compounds and covalent molecules
6. I can distinguish between lone pairs and bonding pairs of electrons in molecules
7. I can use the periodic table and a list of ions (including polyatomic!ions)to name and write chemical formulae for common ionic compounds, using appropriate terminology
8. I can convert names to formulae and formulae to names for!covalent compounds, using prefixes up to deca
9. I can define and explain the law of conservation of mass Chapter 4.3
10. I can represent chemical reactions and the conservation of atoms using molecular models
11. I can write and balance (using the lowest whole number coefficients) chemical equations from formulae, word equations, or descriptions of experiments
Physics 11: Term 2 Report Card
Unit: Optics Knows: I can list the rules of ray drawing. I can list the characteristics of images. I can state the laws of reflection. I can distinguish between diffuse and specular reflection. I can label the parts of a ray drawing for plane mirrors. I can label the parts of a ray drawing for curved mirrors. I can describe different kinds of curved mirrors. I can define the index of refraction. I can describe Snells Law. I can label the parts of a ray drawing for refraction at a plane boundary. I can label the parts of a ray drawing for refraction by a lens. I can define critical angle. I can describe total internal reflection. I can give examples of common devices that reflect light. I can give examples of common devices that refract light.
LG = Mark = %
Dos: I can draw labeled ray diagrams showing how images form in a plane mirror. I describe the characteristics of images formed in a plane mirror. I can experimentally distinguish between converging and diverging mirrors. I can experimentally find the focal length of a converging mirror. I can locate and describe the image formed by a curved mirror:
using a scaled ray diagram and using the mirror equation I can solve problems using:
The definition of index of refraction Snells Law
I can experimentally distinguish between converging and diverging lenses. I can experimentally find the focal length of a thin converging lens. I can locate and describe the image formed by a thin lens:
using a scaled ray diagram and using the mirror equation.
LG = Mark = %
Unit: Kinematics Knows: I can define and relate the terms: clock reading, position and event. I can differentiate between a clock reading and a time interval. I can define and relate distance and average speed. I can define and relate displacement and average velocity. I can differentiate between scalars and vectors. I can define instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed. I can define average acceleration.
LG = Mark = %
Dos: I can solve problems involving: displacement, time interval, and average velocity. I can use position-time graphs to determine: displacement & average velocity, distance travelled & average speed, instantaneous velocity I can construct position-time graphs based on data from various sources. I can construct velocity-time graphs based on data from various sources. I can use velocity-time graphs to determine: instantaneous velocity, displacement, average velocity, acceleration
LG = Mark = %
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Student #: ______________ HR: _____
Teacher: Mr. J.Martens
Course: Physics 11
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Chapter 4.1 Atomic Theory Lab 4.1: Building an Atom (PhET simulation)
PART I: ATOM SCREEN
1. Go to the website: phet.colorado.edu. Click on HTML5 simulations on top right of screen and choose the Build an Atom simulation (http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom)
2. Explore the Build an Atom simulation with your group. As you explore, talk about what you find. List two things your group observed in the simulation.
a. !b. !!
2. Click on the + sign for each of the boxes (element name, net charge and mass number) to view changes as you change the number of particles in the atom.
3. What particle(s) are found in the centre of the atom?______________________________________________________
4. Play until you discover which particle(s) determine(s) the name of the element you build. _______________________
5. What is the name of the following atoms?
a. An atom with 3 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________
b. An atom with 2 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________
c. An atom with 4 protons and 4 neutrons: _____________
6. Play with the simulation to discover which particles affect the charge of an atom or ion. ________________________
7. Fill in the blanks below to show your results:
a. Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.
b. Positive ions have ________________________________ protons than electrons.
c. Negative ions have _______________________________ protons than electrons.
8. Develop a relationship (in the form of a single sentence or equation) that can predict the charge based on the number and types of particle. !!!
9. Play with the simulation to discover what affects the mass number of your atom or ion. ______________________________
a. What is a rule for determining the mass number of an atom or ion? !!10. Fill in the blanks below to show your understanding of charge and mass:
a. Protons have a mass of ___________ amu and a charge of _____________.
b. Neutrons have a mass of ___________ amu and a charge of _____________.
c. Electrons have a mass of nearly ___________ amu and a charge of _____________.
11. Practice applying your understanding by playing 1st and 2nd levels on the game screen. ! of 3 23
PART II: SYMBOL SCREEN
1. Using the Symbol readout box, figure out which particles affect each component of the atomic symbol and how the value of the numbers is determined.
3. Practice applying your understanding by playing the 3rd and 4th game levels. Play until you can get all the questions correct on the 4th level. Fill in the information here for your last screen of the 4th game level:
electrons ___________ !PART III: REVIEW EXERCISES - USE PERIOD TABLE
1. The periodic table has a great deal of information about every atom. Using your periodic table, answer the following questions:
a. What is the atomic number of chlorine (Cl)? _____ c. How many protons are there in any Cl atom?_____
b. What is the atomic number of tungsten (W)? _____ d. How many protons are there in any Te atom? _____
2. Can you tell from your own periodic table exactly how many neutrons are in an atom? Explain your answer.
!3. How will you use your periodic table to find the number of neutrons?
!6. Complete the following table:
Position in symbol box Term to describe this informationParticle used to determine
thisHow the value is
a Element symbol protons # of p will identify the element
b Ion charge
c Atomic number
d Mass number
Name Symbol Atomic numberMass
NumberNumber of neutrons
Number of Electrons Charge
hydrogen-2 2H 1 2 1 1 0
sodium-22 22 10
12 24 12
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PART IV: ATOMIC THEORY SUMMERY
1. Draw a model of a boron atom with a mass number of 10. Include and label all the subatomic particles, and indicate the charge of all the subatomic particles. !!!!!!!!!!
2. Fill out the the following table:
Chapter 4.1 Bohr Models Notes!!Electron shells (orbitals, E levels) !1st shell holds only ______! ! ! ! ! Valence shell:! 2nd shell hold ______!3rd shell holds ______! ! ! ! ! ! Valence electrons:! 4th shell holds ______!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Example: Sodium Atom! !Shortcomings of model?!!!!Advantages of model?!!!!
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Particle Location Mass (Proton = 1) Charge!!!
!!Stable:!!Unstable:!!Atoms will tend to gain or lose e- in order to become stable!!!ION! ! ! ! ! vs! ! ! ATOM! !!!!!!!!IMPORTANT NOTE:!Protons are locked in the nucleus so the positive charge cant change...positive ions come from atoms that have lost e-, NOT from gaining protons!!!Example!Single e- in valence shell !Unstable !gain 7 or lose 1 e-?!!!!!!!!!!!!
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4.1 Patterns in the periodic table activity!
!1. With your partner find as many patterns as possible.!!
Chapter 4 Atomic theory explains the formation of compounds. MHR 175
Patterns of Electron Arrangement in PeriodsThe period number of an element equals the number of occupied shellsof its atoms. Notice in Figure 4.7 that the two elements in period 1,hydrogen and helium, have a single occupied shell. The first shell of anatom can have a maximum of two electrons. Hydrogen has only oneelectron in its shell. Helium has a full set of two electrons in its shell.
Did You Know?Scientists were surprised to findthat electrons could pair upinside atoms because allelectrons have a negative chargeand therefore should repel eachother. The reason they can pairup is because of certaindifferences in the magnetic
properties of each electron.
The elements in period 2 all have two occupied shells. For eachelement in period 2, the first shell, which is closest to the nucleus, has afull set of two electrons. As you move from left to right across period 2,one more electron is added to the second shell of each atom. Notice thatneon, the last element in period 2, has a full set of eight electrons in itssecond shell. The arrangement of eight electrons in the outermost shell iscalled a stable octet. Octet refers to a complete set of eight electrons.
Elements in period 3 have three occupied shells. The first two shellsfor each element in period 3 are full. As you move from left to rightacross period 3, one more electron is added to the third shell of eachatom. Notice that argon has a stable octet in its outermost shell.
Patterns of Electron Arrangement in GroupsThe outermost shell that contains electrons is called the valence shell.The electrons in the valence shell are called the valence electrons.Valence electrons are involved in chemical bonding. Examine the Group1 elements in Figure 4.7 (lithium, sodium, and potassium). The atoms ofeach element in group 1, as well as hydrogen, have only one electron intheir valence shell. Group 2 elements have two electrons in their valenceshell. Group 13 elements have three electrons in their valence shell.Group 14 has four electrons, and so on through group 18. All group 18elements have filled valence shells. Helium has two electrons filling itsvalence shell. Neon and argon each have eight electrons, or a stableoctet, filling their valence shell. Figure 4.7 above shows that electronscan exist singly or in pairs. Electrons in completed shells (except forhydrogen) appear in pairs.
Figure 4.7 Occupied shells forindividual atoms of the first 20elements in the periodic table.Note that the diagrams do notrepresent the position or path ofelectrons.ArClSPAl SiMgNa
2 13 14 15 16 17
BCS10_C04_F_3 6/9/08 11:50 AM Page 175
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4.1 Bohr Model Compounds Notes!!Forming Compounds!Atoms wants to be stable (have a full valence shell). Atoms can become stable by!!1. !
- metals tend to ___________ and become ___ (called_______________)!
- non-metals tend to __________ and become ___ (called_______________)!
2. !!A. Ionic Compounds!Ionic bonds are formed between positive ions and negative ions.! Generally, this is a metal (+) and a non-metal (-) ion.! For example, lithium and oxygen form an ionic bond in the compound Li2O.!!!!!!!!!Covalent Compounds!Covalent bonds are formed between two or more non-metals.! Electrons are shared between atoms.! For example, hydrogen and fluoride form a covalent bond in the compound HF.!!!!!!!!!!Ionic ! ! vs. ! ! ! Covalent! !!
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NOTE:!Metals are found
4.1 Lewis diagram Notes!Lewis Structures!Lewis diagrams illustrate chemical bonding by showing only an atoms valence electrons and the chemical symbol.! !
!!Example!Draw Lewis structure for Ca, a chlorine ion and a beryllium ion.!!!!!
NOTE: Square brackets are placed around each ion and the charge is added outside the bracket.!
Ionic Compounds!Beryllium and chlorine can form an ionic compound:!
!!!!Lets try CaO:!!!!!!
Covalent Compounds!Lewis diagrams can also represent covalent bonds.! The shared pairs of electrons are usually drawn as a straight line.!
Example:!HF! ! ! ! H2O!!!!!
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4.2 Names and Formulas for compounds!!!
insert periodic table for nomenclature
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4.2 Type I Ionic Compounds (metal + non-metal)!- contain a metal and a nonmetal !- the metal that is present only forms one type of cation (shaded above with charges). !- Both the metal and the non-metal form ions, which is why it is called an ionic compound. !!
1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category for Type I binary ionic compounds.!!
NaCl! FeCl2! CaCl2! TiO2! MgO! AlBr3! KCl! K2S! BeF2! Cu2O3!AgCl! Zn3N2!!Formula and name examples for Type I ionic compounds:!!KI = potassium iodide ! BaO = barium oxide ! ZnF2 = zinc fluoride !Na2S = sodium sulfide! Ag3N = silver nitride ! BeCl2 = beryllium chloride!!2) What type of element is always listed first (metal or nonmetal)? __________ second? _________!3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)!4) What is the common ending for all the names? ______________!5) In zinc fluoride, there are 2 fluoride atoms, are they indicated in the name? (yes/no)!6) What is the charge on the zinc ion? _______!7) What is the charge on the fluoride ion? _______!8) Why do you need one zinc ion and two fluoride ions for the formula for zinc fluoride?!9) Why do you need two sodium ions for every sulfide ion in sodium sulfide?!!10) As a team, determine the rules for naming type I binary ionic compound when given the formula.!!!!!11) As a team, determine the rules for writing the formula for a type I binary compound when given
the name.!!!!12) Name each of the type I binary ionic compounds listed in question 1.!!! ! ! !________________________________ ____________________________________!! ! ! !________________________________ ____________________________________!! ! ! !________________________________ ____________________________________!! ! ! !________________________________ ____________________________________!! !________________________________!Finish Q. 1-11 on Worksheet 4.2 A + B p. 13 in note package.!
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4.2 Type II Ionic Compounds (transition metal +non-metal)!- contain a metal and a non-metal !- the metal that is present here can form more than one type of cation (blank in the ! periodic table above)!- both the metal and the nonmetal form ions, and it is still called an ionic compound. !!
1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category for Type II ionic compounds.!!
! AlP! FeCl2! Ag2O! VBr5! CoS! SnF2! K3N! SrF2! CuBr! AuCl3! ZnO! HgS!!Formula and name examples for Type II ionic compounds:!!Fe2O3 = iron(III) oxide! FeO = iron(II) oxide!CuS = copper(II) sulfide ! CuCl = copper(I) chloride!MnO2 = manganese(IV) oxide ! MnCl2 = manganese(II) chloride !!2) What type of element is always listed first (metal or nonmetal)? ____________ second?
___________!3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)!4) What is the common ending for the nonmetal portion of the names? ______________!5) In the compound FeO, what is the charge on iron? _______!6) In the compound Fe2O3, what is the charge on iron? ________!7) What does the Roman number after the metal name represent? !!8) As a team, determine the rules for naming type II ionic compound when given the
formula.!!!!11) As a team, determine the rules for writing the formula for a type II compound when given
the name.!!!12) Name each of the type II ionic compounds listed in Question 1 of Type II section.!!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!! ! !_____________________________!Finish Q. 12-22 on Worksheet 4.2 A + B p. 13 in note package.
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Answer sheet for Worksheet 4.2 A + B (pink)!1. Obtain Worksheet 4.2 A + B from Ms. Veenstra!2. Write down the formula for the ions and compounds in the first three columns using
Worksheet 4.2 A!3. Check your answers on worksheet 4.2 B!4. Write down the names for the compounds using worksheet 4.2 B!5. Check your answers using worksheet 4.2 A!
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1st Ion 2nd Ion Formula for compound
1 Ca Cl CaCl calcium chloride
4.2 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions!Polyatomic ions are ions that as a group have a set charge. Polyatomic ions are usually
recognized in a formula by the grouping of more than one nonmetal elements after a metal. Your book has a table listing polyatomic ions. Use your books table to fill in the following table with the appropriate names/formulas of the polyatomic ions. !!
!!Use your knowledge of Type I and Type II metals as well as the appropriate polyatomic name/formula to fill in the following table.!!
!!Check your work:!Were the polyatomic ions correctly identified for the above table? Remember when you have parentheses, you must identify the polyatomic ions by looking inside the parentheses and the numbers outside the parentheses just indicate how many of that polyatomic ion you have.!!Are the compound formulas you filled into the table above neutral in charge?!!Do all type II metals in the table above have their charge indicated by either a Roman numeral or their Latin name with an ous or ic ending?!!Are all type I metals listed without a Roman numeral?!!!!Finish Q. 23-48 on Worksheet 4.2 A + B p. 15 in note package.
Name Formula Name Formula
Name Formula Name Formula
sodium carbonate Cu(NO
iron(II) nitrate calcium sulfate
MnSO ammonium nitrate
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Answer sheet for Worksheet 4.2 A + B (pink)!
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1st Ion 2nd Ion Formula for compound
4.2 Covalent compounds (non-metal and non-metal)!! Compounds that do not contain metals have covalent bonds instead of ionic bonds. A covalent bond is formed by sharing one or more pairs of electrons. The pair of electrons is shared by both atoms. For example, in forming H2, each hydrogen atom contributes one electron to the single bond.!!1) From the following list, cross out those compounds that do NOT belong in the category
for binary compounds containing only nonmetals or metalloids.!!CCl4! AlCl3! CO! SeF6! SiO2! SrI2! P4O10!TiO2! SeO3! IrCl! ZrO2! N2O5!!
Formula and name examples for covalent compounds:!CO2 = carbon dioxide ! ! ! H2O = dihydrogen monoxide! !P4S10 = tetraphosphorus decasulfide! ! NO = nitrogen monoxide!IF5 = iodine pentafluoride ! ! ! BF3 = boron trifluoride!!2) Which element is listed first in the name?!3) Is the name of the first element in the compound different from the element? (yes/no)!4) What is the common ending for all the names? ______________!5) What do the prefixes (di-, mono-, penta-, tri-) in the names above mean?!6) Is the prefix mono- used when there is only one atom of the first element? (yes/no) !7) Is the prefix mono- used when there is one atom of the second element? (yes/no)!8) As a team, determine the rules for naming covalent compound when given the formula.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8) Name each of the covalent compounds listed above.!!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!! ! ! !_____________________________ _________________________________!!!!
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!Answer sheet for Worksheet 4.2 C + D (Blue)
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Formula Name Formula Name
Chapter 4.3 Chemical Equations!
!4.4 Conservation of Mass Activity!
1. Make lego models of the two reactants in the chemical reaction represented below. Make a drawing in the table below.!
! Na =! ! ! H =! ! ! C =! ! ! O =!2. Find the mass of the reactants: _____________ g!
3. Rearrange the lego to represent the products in the chemical reaction. Make a drawing in the table.!
4. Find the mass of the reactants: ______________ g!
1. What does a lego piece represent?!
2. What does a collection of lego blocks represent?!
3. What can you say about the mass before and after the reaction?!
4. What can you say about the number of lego pieces before and after the reaction?!
Word equation:! 1. !!2.
Symbolic equation: 1. !! products reactants!!2. !!coefficient subscript!!
States of Matter:
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NaHCO HC CO H2 NaC
Count the number of atoms in the reactants!Na = H = C = O =
Count the number of atoms in the products!Na = H = C = O =
Chapter 4.3 Lab!The Mass of Reactants and Products!
!Question: In a chemical reaction, will the reactants weigh the same as the products?!
In this experiment, we will use the chemical equation for the reaction of vinegar (the chemical name for vinegar is acetic acid) and baking soda (the chemical name for baking soda is sodium bicarbonate):!
Baking soda + vinegar ----> carbon dioxide + water + sodium acetate!
NaHCO3 +HC2H3O2 ----> CO2 + H2O + NaC2H3O2 !
We will use this experiment to find out if the reactants (baking soda and vinegar) weigh the same as the products (carbon dioxide, water, and sodium acetate)!
Ziploc bag! ! ! ! ! ! Vinegar (CH3COOH)!
Spatula! ! ! ! ! ! ! Baking Soda (NaHCO3)!
Balance! ! ! ! ! ! ! Graduated Cylinder!
1. Put on safety goggles.!
2. Place a scoop of baking soda into the bag.!
3. Mass the bag with baking soda in it. Record: _________________(A)!
4. Mass the empty graduated cylinder. Record: __________________(B)!
5. Measure about 10 mL of vinegar into the graduated cylinder.!
6. Mass the graduated cylinder with vinegar in it. Record:____________________(C)!
7. Pour the vinegar into the bag and immediately zip it tightly shut.!
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8. Observe the chemical reaction.!
a. What do you notice?!
b. What is being produced?!
c. Is there a change in color?!
d. Feel the outside of the bag. Is there a change in temperature?!
9. Wait until the reaction stops. Mass the bag _________________(D)!
For the REACTANTS:!
Mass of bag + mass of baking soda (A) + mass of vinegar in grad cylinder (C) mass of grad cylinder (B)!
_____ (A) + _____ (C) _____ (B) = _______!
For the PRODUCTS:!
Mass of bag + resulting chemicals in bag!
D = _____!
Does the mass of the reactants equal the mass of the products?!
Was your hypothesis correct? !
!What is the law of conservation of mass? How does it relate to this experiment?!
!!Do you think there were any errors that may have changed the results that you should have gotten?!
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!!!insert balancing equation activity
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!!!!insert balancing activity
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4.3 Tips for Balancing
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