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SUPPORT PROGRAMME FOR EFFECTIVE PREVENTION OF TORTURE IN LATIN AMERICA ASSOCIATION FOR THE PREVENTION OF TORTURE APT
Presented by Elisabeth Hayek-Weinmann
March 14th, 2013
I. Scope and Methodology of the Evaluation a. Evaluation Objectives and Scope b. Methodological Framework and Implementation Phase
II. Background and Context of the Programme
III. Conceptualization and Design: The logical framework of the
V. Performance a. Effectiveness b. Efficiency
ANNEXES Annex 1: Call for Proposals, 27 Nov 2012 Terms of Reference Annex 2: APT-AL Programme and Reference Documents Consulted Annex 3: Interviews Guideline (Spanish) /Written Questionnaire (Portuguese) Annex 4: Interviews Conducted/Questionnaires Administrated Annex 5: APT-AL Programme Logical Framework/Expected Results
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
AECID CSO CONAPREV IACHR IIDH IDB ILANUD LogFrame LPM NPM OAS OHCHR OPCAT SDC SPT UNDP USAID
Agency for International Development Cooperation of Spain Civil Society Organisation National Commission for the Prevention of Torture - Honduras Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Institute for Human Rights Inter-American Development Bank UN Latin American Institute for Crime Prevention and Treatment of Offenders Logical Framework Local Preventive Mechanism National Preventive Mechanism Organization of American States Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Optional Protocol to the UN Convention Against Torture Swiss Development Cooperation UN Subcommittee for the Prevention of Torture United Nations Development Programme US Agency for International Development
EVALUATION REPORT SUPPORT PROGRAMME FOR EFFECTIVE PREVENTION OF TORTUREIN LATIN AMERICA
ASSOCIATION FOR THE PREVENTION OF TORTURE APT (2009 2013)
Introduction This report presents the main findings, conclusions and recommendations of the External Evaluation of the Support Programme for Effective Prevention of Torture. The Programmes stated aim is to prevent torture and ill-treatment in Latin America, through the establishment of an effective, legitimate and sustainable torture prevention system under the OPCAT. As the Programme reaches its final year of implementation, ATP and the Liechtenstein Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the main donor of the Programme, considered it particularly crucial to derive key lessons from the experience that can be usefully fed into the on-going activities as well as future developments at regional and global levels. The Programme has also received support from Australia, Britain, the Netherlands and Spain Ministries of Foreign Affairs as well as the UN OPCAT Special Fund. In compliance with the Call for Proposals for the assignment (Annex 1), the Programme has been assessed from the perspective of its achievements and implementation strategies, examining relevance, ownership and the institutional capacity generated at national levels. The Evaluation has been framed by the methodological approach and work plan described in the Inception Report submitted to APT on 15.01.13, and was carried out between 07.01 to 20.02.13. While this assessment was conceived primarily as a desk-study based on the review of existing documents, an additional field study phase was planned -covering Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama-, it also included telephone interviews and the administration of written questionnaires in order to obtain qualitative information from key associates and partners in the remaining Latin American countries targeted by the Programme.
I. Scope and Methodology of the Evaluation
a. Evaluation Objectives and Scope
The main purpose of the evaluation was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the Programmes results, in terms of the objectives defined in the Project Proposal Document of January 2009, as well as a review of the appropriateness of its implementation strategies. The evaluation covered the six lines of activities carried out by the Programme in 17 Latin American countries, from 2009 to 2012. It granted special attention to 9 countries in the region identified by the Programme as priority areas of intervention (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay and Uruguay).
b. Methodological Framework and Implementation Phases
The assessment was conceived as an external exercise based on a knowledge-management approach. It was oriented to draw lessons from the experience and sought to identify best practices and recommendations to enhance APTs future initiatives in the Latin American region. The evaluation was guided by the set of principles established within the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and by the OECD-DAC Evaluation Quality Standards. The Evaluation design followed analytical categories and criteria derived from the Results Based Management-RBMS- and Results Analysis methodological frameworks, with an emphasis in terms of relevance, effectiveness and sustainability. The assessment is based on a combination of secondary and primary information gathered through
desk-study and qualitative research instruments. A detailed list of documents reviewed and the bibliography consulted can be found in Annex 2. The qualitative instruments included face-to-face interviews conducted during the field visit to Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama; it also included telephone interviews and written questioners directed to key programme associates and stakeholders in five additional countries and to other key actors working at international or regional level. All interviews and questioners followed the same set of guiding questions (See Annex 3). The Evaluation was carried out in three in phases: 1. During the preparatory phase an initial desk-study was conducted, mainly covering the Programmes planning
and monitoring documents (Project Document, Work-Plans and Narrative Reports) as a base for the evaluation design that was presented in the Inception Report. Additional reference and context documents were gathered and, with the support of the APT Office in Panama, key regional partners were identified and a programme of interviews was organised.
2. During the field visits to Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama, a total of 32 semi-structured interviews were
conducted. They covered the four categories of key actors previously identified in the Inception Report: a) international and regional organisations; b) leading national associates and direct beneficiaries (NPMs, heads of the National Institutions of Human Rights and other national authorities); c) civil society organisations; d) qualified observers. A group discussion was held in Honduras with 16 members of the Association of Relatives of Victims of Comayagua1.
3. The last phase was dedicated to the tasks of conducting telephone interviews, distributing the written
questionnaires, systematising and analysing the information gathered and preparing the evaluation reports. A total of 16 telephone interviews (out of 20 requested) were carried-out with partners and associates in Argentina (5), Chile (2), Mexico (2), Uruguay (2), Paraguay (1), and other key actors working at global or regional organisations (4). The guiding questions of the semi-structured interviews were translated into Portuguese by the APT Regional Director, they were distributed to 9 stakeholders in Brazil and 3 of them were returned fully answered, one of them signed by the six members of the LPM-Rio de Janeiro. In total, 55 stakeholders and associates of the Programme were consulted (a detailed list of interviews and questionnaires answered is presented in Annex 4).
II. Background and Context of the Programme Leaving behind a recent past afflicted by dictatorships and internal conflicts, Latin American countries have displayed a wide-spread commitment with the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention Against Torture OPCAT, with 14 out of 20 Latin American States having signed or ratified it2. During the last two decades, Latin America has experienced democratisation processes that successfully replaced authoritarian governments and brought protracted internal conflicts to an end. In some cases, these processes led not only to changes in government, but also to broader projects of constitutional reforms to reshape the State, projects that had been legitimized by popular vote (as in the case of Bolivia) or as a result of Peace Agreements (Guatemala, El Salvador). However momentous these advances have been in terms of democratic rule and electoral regimes, many basic civil rights are not safeguarded and levels of poverty and inequality remain among the highest in the world.
1 362 inmates died in a fire at Comayagua prison on February 15th 2012. Since then an Association formed by relatives of the victims has been demanding a full investigation and asking for justice and reparation.
2 The exceptions are Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti and Venezuela (the last one has already signed the OPCAT).
Moreover, during the last two decades the region has experienced an increase in multiple manifestations of crime and social violence making Latin America one of the most violent regions in global terms, with some cities experiencing homicide rates that are amongst the highest in the world. Regional surveys indicate that between 1995 and 2010 on average both victimization and percepti