eutrophication 4 assessing , monitoring and remediation
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DESCRIPTIONEutrophication 4 Assessing , Monitoring and Remediation. Alice Newton. Assessing Eutrophication. Monitoring EU trophication, EEA. · nutrients : TP (year round and winter), PO4 (winter), TN (year round and winter), NO3 (winter), NO2 (winter), NO3+ NO2 (winter), NH4 (winter), - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Eutrophication 4Assessing, Monitoring and RemediationAlice Newton
Monitoring EUtrophication, EEA nutrients: TP (year round and winter), PO4 (winter), TN (year round and winter), NO3 (winter), NO2 (winter), NO3+ NO2 (winter), NH4 (winter),TN/TP (year round) and SiO3 (winter);watershed input: TN, TP and TC entering the water system. oxygen level: dissolved oxygen concentration or saturation in bottom water layer; transparency: Secchi depths (summer); phytoplankton: algal blooms, toxic algae, Phaeocystis sp., diatom/flagellate ratio (spring and summer) and chlorophyll-a (summer); benthic vegetation: seagrasses (cover and maximum depth occurrence) and seaweeds (cover and maximum depth occurrence); micro-phytobenthos biomass; benthic fauna: macro-zoobenthos biomass;
1980s Environmental Legislation and Directives Nitrate Directive, Urban Waste Water Directive,Drinking Water Directive
Assessment of Impact of EU Directives on PPhosphorus concentrations in severely affected lakes have decreased significantly Phosphorus concentrations in major rivers have decreased significantly over the last 15 years No clear trend in coastal watersDirective: The Urban Waste Water Action: investment by EEA member countries in nutrient removal
Assessment of Impact of EU Directives on NNitrogen pollution has been reduced to a far lesser extentNitrogen surplus from agriculture at the same concentration as in 1990 Nitrate concentrations have remained constant and high. Nitrate concentrations in many groundwater supplies exceed limits set by the Drinking Water Directive.
EEA assessment of Nutrients and EutrophicationLate 1990s Little or No improvement in N despite Nitrate DirectiveNeed for more comprehensive Environmental legislation
Water Framework Directive, WFD
2000 WFD Water Framework Directive
CIS Common Implementation StrategyGuidance documentsGIG Geographical Intercalibration Groups e.g. Portugal and Norway belong to NEA North East Atlantic
DPSIR assessment framework for eutrophication in coastal EU waters
Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses
USA National Estuaries Assessmentdifferent approachEutrophication Severity and ExtentSymptoms of Eutrophication in EstuariesHuman Influence on EutrophicationImpaired Uses of EstuariesPotential Management ConcernsFuture Eutrophic Conditions, 2020Data Gaps and Research NeedsNational Strategy
Simplified Eutrofication Model of NEEANow updated through ASSETS(Compare these to Cloern)
Expanded Eutrophication Model, NEEA
Severity and Extent
High eutrophic conditions:44 estuaries,40% of the total estuarine surface area studied. Where?all coasts most prevalent in Gulf of Mexico Middle Atlantic coastsModerate conditions : 40 estuaries 25 % of the total estuarine surface area studied.
Matrix forDeterminingLevel ofEutrophicationNEEA
Symptoms of Eutrophication in Estuaries82 estuaries67% of estuarine surface area moderate to high expressions of the following symptoms: depleted dissolved oxygen, loss of submerged vegetation,and nuisance/toxic algal blooms.
Eutrophication and Nutrient Inputs44 Estuaries have high levels of eutrophicationFew, 6 /44, have high level N inputs. Half, 22 / 44, have moderate-level N inputs.
Human Influence on Eutrophication
A high level of human influence in 36/44 estuaries with high eutrophic conditions.
Estuarine export potential and susceptibility25/ 44 estuaries have a high susceptibility to retaining nutrients.
Important observation according to these results, the physical characteristics of the estuary are often more important than nutrient inputs!
SusceptibilityAdditional factors may influence susceptibility of a system to eutrophication e.g.:Tidal flushing and dilutionLight regimeZooplankton grazingBenthic suspension feedersClimate change
Impaired Uses of Estuaries69 estuaries have human-use impairments related to eutrophication.Commercial/recreational fishing and shellfisheries most frequently affected in 43 and 46 estuaries, respectively.
Potential Management Concerns
23 estuaries require greater management effort and longer time, ~ 10% of the estuarine surface area.10 estuaries should be priorities for preventive management, ~ 3% of the estuarine surface area.Typical point and nonpoint pollution sources identified as important to target in order to manage nutrient problems.
Future of Eutrophication USA (2020)
Most likely worsen in 86 estuaries by the year 2020.Of the 86 estuaries expected to worsen, 43 exhibit only low to moderate eutrophic conditions.10 estuaries that exhibit low eutrophic conditions and have high susceptibility are most at risk of future degradation if human-related nutrient inputs increase.
Data Gaps and Research Needs
Information and knowledge is still inadequate in 48 estuaries Research to clarify the linkages between eutrophication and impacts on estuarine resources:fisheries, recreation and tourismrisks to human health.Adequately characterize and quantify nutrient pressure on estuaries:total nutrient inputsinputs by sourceestimators of nutrient pressure (e.g., population, land use). Atmospheric and groundwater inputs are least well quantified.Better characterization of physical factors, including:basic circulation patterns,effects of weather patterns, climate change, changing land use, resultant effects on nutrient delivery, circulation, and eutrophic conditions.Defining the relationship between nutrient inputs and toxic bloomsCharacterization of assimilative capacityCharacterization of the effects of seasonal population changes.
National USA Strategy
Continue AssessmentImplement ManagementContinue MonitoringPreventionResearchIntegrate with regional, state, and local programsBut then, there was a change of administration!
RemediationSewage treatment (with biological nutrient removal). Smart septic tanksRestoring wetlands and riperian vegetationReduction of nonpoint sources of N & PEfficient and intelligent use of fertilizer inc. timed application & sub soil deliveryTreatment of animal wastes and utilization of manure as fertilizerDecrease animal protein diet demandControls on vehicles and industrial atmospheric outputsNutrient tradingalthough CO2 trading has NOT been a success home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~vsmil
Discharge of P from water treatment in NW EU. EEA
Impact of Urban Watewater treatment. EEA