European Microfinance Network 4th Annual Conference Microfinance in a Banking Environment Models, Experiences, the Way Forward "Research in European Microfinance

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European Microfinance Network 4th Annual Conference Microfinance in a Banking Environment Models, Experiences, the Way Forward "Research in European Microfinance workshop Presentation of the work-in-progress of the PhD dissertation Regulating microfinance through a social and economic analysis Simone di Castri Research coordinator and assistant project manager - Microfinance project - International Development Law Organization (IDLO) PhD candidate in Law and Economics - University of Bologna Slide 2 The thesis 1.Overview of the literature on microfinance regulation 2.Comparative analysis of microfinance and its regulations in some developed and developing countries 3.Economic analysis of different regulatory approaches 4.Identifying the guidelines 5.A model to regulate microfinance in Italy 6.Microfinance and social welfare/workfare policies Slide 3 The questions How does microfinance differ from mainstream financial provision in overcoming the challenges of social and financial exclusion? How is microfinance interacting with the financial system and regulation? How does the legal framework influence microfinance scale, outreach and impact? How is microfinance modifying financial services regulation and the mainstream banking activitys usual procedures? Do the benefits of microfinance action justify the cost of changing regulation and subsidizing microfinance? Is there a need for MFIs everywhere, or could mainstream financial providers be boosted to serve those at bottom of society? How to design a regulatory environment to increase and improve the provision of financial services to marginalized people Is it a national or EU issue? Slide 4 Why this research There are only studies country-based There are not studies conducted through the economic analysis of microfinance regulation Microfinance in Italy is underdeveloped and regulation matters Law-makers approach can not be addressed without a policy analysis that looks at microfinance in the range of the other social welfare/workfare tools Slide 5 How it has done 2. Comparative analysis to understand markets structure micro financial services demand poverty income inequality capabilities inequality lack of financial services clients/beneficiaries micro financial services supply providers services served people diffusion constraints microfinance outreach and impact financial regulation } capacities of the existing infrastructures Slide 6 Demand and supply poor poorest Different providers for different targets and needs Regulation is a main factor affecting the supply side Characteristics of the demand Capacity and potential of the supply Slide 7 Supply and regulation Why does regulation is a main factor that affects the supply? Actors/providers enabled to participate the market Financial services they are allowed to provide SUSTAINABILITY, OUTREACH AND IMPACT Instruments they can use to raise capital SUSTAINABILITY AND OUTREACH Governance SUSTAINABILITY, OUTREACH AND IMPACT Slide 8 Regulation and the demand How can regulation affect the demand? (indirectly) Providers can offer more and better services And (directly) Managing costs and incentives that improve the environment for entrepreneurship Slide 9 Comparative analysis to understand markets structure Demand Supply Analysis of the regulations to understand how regulation affects the market Cross analysis to see how regulation can be amended to maximize the efficiency of the existing infrastructures or to push in the market new actors to reach the unserved Slide 10 Regulation and public policy approaches in EMN countries: some examples of constraints and incentives France Loi 2001-420 on Nouvelles Rgulations Economiques Borloo law on social cohesion Tax exemptions Interest caps removed Spain Saving banks Public programs Entitades de Apoyo al Microcrdito Germany Banks Grunderzentren Public fund for microfinance Ich-AG United Kingdom Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) Small Firms Loan Guarantee Scheme (SFLGS) Phoenix Fund Basic Bank Account Italy +USA Slide 11 Different approaches - evidences the role of social intermediaries and business incubators; - see Spain and Germany the application of or the exemption from the mainstream banking legal requirements to micro finance intermediaries; their inclusion into the the range of financial providers; - see France public programs to provide capital to lend to IMFs and share the risk with them; the interest caps issue; - see UK and France valorization of governance requirements; - see UK CDFIs improving mainstream financial intermediaries role in the sector, even through some coercive methods that take into account their accountability towards stakeholders and communities; - UK Basic Bank Accounts and US Community Reinvestment Act emphasizing the potential of savings banks, cooperative banks and foundations through their inclusion in public programs (establishing public funds to share risks); the maximization of public subsidies and the incentive for private donors; - see UK OPEN ISSUES the role of EU and the capacity of European policy to spur microfinance provision in Western EU countries > JEREMIE implementation of public credit registries; implementation of evaluation methods for microfinance transparency; the effects of Basel II Slide 12 Main problems for this research Lack of studies on Outreach and impact Sustainability Lack of a systematic procedure for studying the implementation of regulation Difficulties in reaching legal data globally Lack of homogenous and comparable information for a holistic study Slide 13 Presentation of the work-in-progress of the PhD dissertation Regulating microfinance through a social and economic analysis Simone di Castri Research coordinator and assistant project manager - Microfinance project - International Development Law Organization (IDLO) PhD candidate in Law and Economics - University of Bologna simone.dicastri@unibo.it

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