ethics in research. participating in research how would you have felt if you participated in dr....

Download Ethics in Research. Participating in Research How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkman’s study? How would you have felt if you participated

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  • Slide 1
  • Ethics in Research
  • Slide 2
  • Participating in Research How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkmans study? How would you have felt if you participated in Dr. Venkmans study?
  • Slide 3
  • History of Ethics 1947 Nuremberg Code 1947 Nuremberg Code Developed post WWII in response to the inhumane research performed by Nazi doctors on prisoners Developed post WWII in response to the inhumane research performed by Nazi doctors on prisoners 1 st attempt to develop guidelines for research with human participants 1 st attempt to develop guidelines for research with human participants
  • Slide 4
  • Nuremberg Code Guidelines Guidelines 1)Participation is voluntary 2)Subjects must be informed 3)Research must address important questions 4)Avoid unnecessary harm 5)Benefits > Risks 6)Researchers must be qualified 7)Ability to withdraw 8)Research must be discontinued if it is harmful
  • Slide 5
  • APA Guide 1953 Based on the Nuremberg Code Based on the Nuremberg Code Psychologist held to standards Psychologist held to standards Guidelines Guidelines 1)Informed Consent 2)Deception 3)Risks vs. Benefits 4)Confidentiality
  • Slide 6
  • Ethical Guidelines Ethics people should be treated as ends not means Ethics people should be treated as ends not means Designed to protect the rights of human and animals Designed to protect the rights of human and animals APA ethics code APA ethics code www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom the psychologists work it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom the psychologists work
  • Slide 7
  • Ethical Responsibilities Researcher responsibilities Researcher responsibilities to science to science to participants to participants Examples of unethical behaviors Examples of unethical behaviors fabrication of results fabrication of results harming participants harming participants
  • Slide 8
  • Ethical Issues No harm No harm Psychological or physical Psychological or physical If P is harmed, benefit > cost If P is harmed, benefit > cost e.g., an effective treatment with side effects e.g., an effective treatment with side effects
  • Slide 9
  • Ethical Issues Informed Consent Informed Consent Information about study Information about study Risks and benefits Risks and benefits Voluntary Voluntary No coercion No coercion Withdraw at any time Withdraw at any time
  • Slide 10
  • Ethical Issues Consent Form Consent Form Ps sign to verify understanding Ps sign to verify understanding Consent competent Ps Consent competent Ps Assent incompetent Ps guardians Assent incompetent Ps guardians e.g., developmentally disabled people e.g., developmentally disabled people
  • Slide 11
  • Ethical Issues Deception Deception Ps do not know true purpose of research Ps do not know true purpose of research Two Types Two Types Passive information is left out Passive information is left out e.g., no knowledge of memory test e.g., no knowledge of memory test
  • Slide 12
  • Ethical Issues Active information is inaccurate Active information is inaccurate e.g., cover story e.g., cover story Milgram (1965) Milgram (1965) Confederate - role-plays. Confederate - role-plays.
  • Slide 13
  • Ethical Issues Debriefing Debriefing Purpose of study is explained to Ps upon completion Purpose of study is explained to Ps upon completion Reduces harmful effects of deception Reduces harmful effects of deception
  • Slide 14
  • Ethical Issues Confidentiality Confidentiality Ps information will be kept secret Ps information will be kept secret e.g., memory, opinions, sexual orientation, etc. e.g., memory, opinions, sexual orientation, etc. Anonymity Anonymity Ps name is not associated with data Ps name is not associated with data e.g., Ps are assigned a number e.g., Ps are assigned a number
  • Slide 15
  • Protection of Human Rights - IRB Institutional Review Board (IRB) Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee who approves research proposals Committee who approves research proposals IRB Forms IRB Forms http://www.psychology.ilstu.edu/research/researchers.html
  • Slide 16
  • Protection of Human Rights - IRB IRB Criteria IRB Criteria Minimize risk Minimize risk Benefits > Risks Benefits > Risks Equal opportunity sampling Equal opportunity sampling Informed consent Informed consent Documentation of consent Documentation of consent Data monitoring Data monitoring Privacy & Confidentiality Privacy & Confidentiality
  • Slide 17
  • Animal Rights Why do we use animals? Why do we use animals? To understand animals To understand animals To understand humans To understand humans To conduct research that cannot be conducted on humans To conduct research that cannot be conducted on humans
  • Slide 18
  • Research with Animals Overseen by a separate committee at many institutions Overseen by a separate committee at many institutions ISU has the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) ISU has the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Different Guidelines for animal subjects Different Guidelines for animal subjects
  • Slide 19
  • Research with Animals 1.Justification Justify the use of animals Justify the use of animals Justify the benefits of the study Justify the benefits of the study Justify the use of a particular species Justify the use of a particular species
  • Slide 20
  • Research with Animals 2.Care and Treatment Only trained researchers can handle animals Only trained researchers can handle animals Animals must be kept in good health Animals must be kept in good health Housing must meet federal guidelines Housing must meet federal guidelines Degarmos lost animal colony Degarmos lost animal colony
  • Slide 21
  • Research with Animals 3.Acquisition of Animals Must be bred humanely OR Must be bred humanely OR Must be obtained from others who obtianed or bred the animals humanely Must be obtained from others who obtianed or bred the animals humanely
  • Slide 22
  • Research with Animals 4.Procedures during study Minimize discomfort of animals Minimize discomfort of animals Greater discomfort = Greater need for justification Greater discomfort = Greater need for justification Surgical procedures must be carefully overseen Surgical procedures must be carefully overseen Animals raised in the lab cannot be released into the wild Animals raised in the lab cannot be released into the wild
  • Slide 23
  • Scientific Integrity Two issues: Fraud & Plagiarism Two issues: Fraud & Plagiarism Fraud a conscious misrepresentation of data by a researcher Fraud a conscious misrepresentation of data by a researcher Plagiarism taking credit for anothers work or ideas Plagiarism taking credit for anothers work or ideas

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