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- EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND DIVERSITY GENDER RACE DISABILITY SEXUAL ORIENTATION RELIGIOUS BELIEF AGE
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- CONTENTS EO&D 1.Statistical Evidence of Disadvantage 2.What do we mean by EO&D? Theoretical Approaches, and Ideologies 3.The History, Politics and Economics 4.The Legislation 5.The Policy Process 6.The European Union: Influence and Effects on UK EO&D 7.Cross-national Comparative Approaches to EO&D in other EU member states 8.Future Agenda
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- Multiple Disadvantage
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- crude idea of adding up disadvantages more sophisticated level Disadvantages not cumulative but interactional Effect runs more than one way Racism is infected & changed by sexism for black women Sexism they encounter is infected and changed by racism
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- Chapter 1 - methodological tool to analyse and expose complex nature of both homogeneity and heterogeneity of disadvantage between & within social groups Chapter 2 - theory to further understand concept of EO&D. Chapter 5 tests usefulness as a policy making tool Chapter 6 examines consequences of intersectional discourse in EU policy making
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- Chapter 1 examination statistical evidence - extent & nature of advantage & disadvantage on grounds of gender, race, disability, religion & belief, sexual orientation & age identifies continuing and consistent disadvantage, particularly in social differentiation of gender examination of interaction & amplification of disadvantage across & within different social categories using intersectional approach, e.g. gender & race, gender & disability, etc.
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- Questions for Discussion Does racial discrimination amplify sex discrimination? How far is racial discrimination tempered by religion? How many social divisions and which ones should be incorporated into an intersectional analysis of disadvantage? Should it concern us that the list may be boundless?
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- Chapter 2 explores myths & realties behind concept of EO&D examines concepts of prejudice & discrimination & gives examples of prejudice that still exists in Britain today, including racism, sexism, disablism, homophobia, Islamophobia and ageism discusses & analyses definitions of EO&D considers some theories and ideologies linked to EO&D examines concepts of individual and institutional discrimination investigates concept of social justice
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Should we treat everyone the same? What is the most convincing case for EO&D? What does Diversity add to the concept of Equal Opportunities? What would your definition of EO&D look like?
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- Chapter 3 sets out & examines historical development of EO&D policies & legislation in context of major driving forces and catalysts within this analysis considers ideological background highlights politics of EO&D by charting & exploring development in the UK through five distinct eras
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Which has been the most effective era for EO&D? Would EO&D policies have developed without social movements campaigns? What will be the main drivers for change in EO&D in the future? Are we moving into a new era for EO&D?
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- Chapter 4
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- examines most significant Acts in both GB & Northern Ireland directly relevant legislation - major anti- discrimination Acts, and duties in the devolved legislatures (NI, Scotland, Wales) Indirect legislation (family-friendly policies, Human Rights Act, immigration & asylum legislation) compares & contrasts approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and positive discrimination interrogates same treatment versus different treatment approach
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Who should be the targets of EO&D legislation & why? Who else could be the targets of EO&D legislation & why? Legislation, eliminating overt discrimination, encourage covert & more subtle forms of discrimination, harder to uncover and eliminate, how can this be avoided? How could EO&D legislation take into account multiple discrimination and an intersectional approach?
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- Chapter 5 examines UK enforcement agencies at national and devolved level; institutional architecture analyses single Equality and Human Rights Commission its implications for EO&D project examines potential for NI approach to Equality Diversity Mainstreaming as model combined with an Intersectional approach to policy making.
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION What potential effect will single EHRC have for EO&D development? Can we successfully take EO&D legislation out of its separate boxes? Can EO&D policies successfully take into account multiple discrimination? Can we expand gender mainstreaming to EO&D mainstreaming? Is it practical to have an intersectional framework for analysis of the EO&D policy process?
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- Chapter 6 analyses contribution of EU to EO&D policies in UK sets this analysis in the context of changes in national governments and their differing attitudes to the EU, from the 1970s to the present day examines EU Equal Opportunities Year for All, 2007
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Why did EU concentrate on EO&D in area of gender? Has this inhibited development in other areas of EO&D in the UK? Will EU continue to have an impact on EO&D and in what ways?
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- Chapter 7 cross-national & comparative examination of some EU member states & their interpretation & implementation of EU Directives interrogates possibility of categorising differing approaches across member states into ideal types
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION What type of gender culture persists in the UK? How is this reinforced by UK EO&D policies?
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- Chapter 8 critiques EO&D as limited liberal concept examines where EO&D legislation and policies likely to go in future investigates how relevant concepts of EO&D are likely to remain in social policy & where the main issues are likely to arise takes deeper look at how terrain of EO&D is changing considers future of EO&D in the context of important questions of how a balance is to be struck between need to treat people equally, need to treat people differently, need to maintain shared values & social cohesion, & how to handle negotiations over contested issues
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- QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Main weakness in EO&D legislation arises from conceptualisation of equality as treating people the same? The race & sex discrimination legislation embody a symmetrical approach to an asymmetrical social problem (i.e. men and white people not discriminated against to extent that women and minority ethnic workers are, yet equally protected). Should this be so? Are some disadvantages more substantial than others? What is the best way to resolve contentious issues of conflicting interests?
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