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  • Sustain. Environ. Res., 21(3), 203-208 (2011) 203


    Yen-Chuan Chen,1,* Tzu-Yar Liu,1 Jui-Hsi Yen,2 Yi-Hua Li,2 Chi-Ming Chiu,2 Ying-Ying Lai2 and Tien-Chi Wu2

    1Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories Industrial Technology Research Institute

    Hsinchu County 310, Taiwan 2Department of Waste Management

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration Taipei 100, Taiwan

    Key Words: Eco-industrial park, environmental science and technology park, industrial symbiosis, CO2 emission reduction, urban mining


    In Taiwan, a total of four eco-industrial parks, called the environmental science and technology parks (ESTPs), have been developed at Kaohsiung, Hualien, Tainan and Taoyuan counties. As the Kaohsiung ESTP is the first one established, there are currently 34 companies stationed in the park approved by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The expected results at Kaohsiung ESTP in the next five years will include creating US$256 million total investment, US$756 million annual production values, 1,009 people in employment, and 0.16 Mt recycling resources. Among the companies stationed in the park, the resource recyclers are the primary business. The benefits of CO2 emission reduction through the resource recycling were also calculated via life cycle assessment model, called DoITPro. Between 2007 and 2009, the total amount of 46.5 103 t recycling resources had been recycled, 27.7 103 t renewable resources retrieved, and 93.4 103 CO2 reduced. It shows that the establishment of Kaohsiung ESTP has economic, social, and environmental benefits and contributes to local development in Kaohsiung.

    *Corresponding author Email: yenchuan@itri.org.tw

    INTRODUCTION The environmental trends of zero waste and car-

    bon reduction have been focused worldwide since the 1990s and different country has implemented various sustainable policies and strategies to respond to these challenges. The industrial symbiosis or symbiotic re-source-recycling network could be created to decrease waste emission and increase renewable resources, so the promotion of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) has be-come an important approach to obtain economic, envi-ronmental, and social benefits simultaneously in many countries [1-3].

    Various definitions of EIPs have been used in the literature. The representative one illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency EIP is stated as [4]: A community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and economic performance by collaborating in the management of environmental and reuse issues. By

    working together the community of businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual benefits each company would realize if it optimized its individual performance only. In addi-tion to the definition stated above, Lowe [5] had specified that an EIP can be designed with various conceptual structures as followings: (1) a single by-product exchange or network of exchange; (2) a recy-cling business cluster; (3) a collection of environ-mental technology companies; (4) a collection of companies, making green products; (5) an industrial park designed around a single environmental theme; (6) a park with environmental friendly infrastructure or construction; and (7) a mixed-use development (in-dustrial, commercial, and residential). Therefore, an industrial park covered one or several conceptual structures suggested above could be classified as an EIP. Although various types of EIPs have been devel-oped in the world, the common feature of an EIP must be more environmental friendly than other conven-

  • 204 Sustain. Environ. Res., 21(3), 203-208 (2011)

    tional ones. The most representative EIP is the Kalundborg

    Park in Denmark. All firms within the park use the wastes/heat generated by others for waste minimiza-tion and energy saving. In recent years, EIPs have been established in different Asian countries, such as Japan [6], China [7], Korea [8], among others. Among these EIPs, the eco-towns developed in Japan have been demonstrated to be successful EIPs to recycle lo-cal wastes to reusing materials. Therefore, not only industrial symbiosis but also urban symbiosis have been created in eco-towns. It has been demonstrated that development of EIPs has the outcome of reduc-tion of waste, pollutant, and carbon emission [9].

    Although resource recycling has become an im-portant environmental strategy of promoting the EIPs, metal is especially important one among various re-sources because economic development depends on the quantity and prices of metals. So the urban mining, which means that waste electronic products or elec-tronic industrial wastes contain valuable metals, is also emphasized recently. Furthermore, urban mining provides the following advantages: (1) secondary pol-lution would not be occurred because of mature and clearer recycling technologies; (2) recycling of rare and precious metals could enhance the competitive-ness of a country; and (3) recyclable metal to replace raw metal from the nature could reduce energy con-sumption and carbon emission from mining. The 2008 publication of the National Institute for Materials Sci-ence in Japan reported that total urban mining in Japan contained 6,800 t gold resulting in Japan being the largest gold-producing country in the world [10]. In Korea, the national green growth strategies announced by government also specify that vitalizing urban min-ing is an important sub-strategy [11].

    In Taiwan, a total of four EIPs, called the envi-ronmental science and technology parks (ESTPs), have been established in Kaohsiung, Hualien, Taoyuan and Tainan counties since 2003. The project of ESTPs was initiated in order to vitalize idle indus-trial zones and enhance nationwide environ-mental/recycling technology level. The ESTP, there-fore, means that the businesses in the park must be environmental friendly and technologically advanced factories. Currently, many resources recycling busi-nesses have been approved in the ESTPs. ESTPs are the same with the other EIPs worldwide to vitalize ur-ban mining, create industrial symbiosis, and reduce carbon emission.

    Kaohsiung ESTP was the first one established on November 3, 2003 in Kaohsiung County. As of Au-gust 2010, 34 companies have been approved to be stationed in this park by Taiwan Environmental Pro-tection Administration (TEPA). In this study, several of main benefits in Kaohsiung ESTP was compared with other respective types of businesses. Furthermore, the environmental benefits of resources recycling

    businesses were calculated via life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify carbon reduction. And the envi-ronmental effects of cleaner production companies were specified via flow chart to show that these busi-nesses could make other local industry greener. There-fore, the purpose in the study is to demonstrate that economic, social, and environmental effectiveness could be obtained simultaneously, and particularly the environmental multi-functions would be revealed gradually in Kaohsiung ESTP.


    1. Brief Description of Kaohsiung ESTP

    As mentioned above, the Kaohsiung ESTP was

    the first one in Taiwan. It covers 40 ha and locates at Gangshan Township, Kaohsiung County. Kaohsiung County is an important industrial city including metal, iron, and petrochemical industries in southern Taiwan. And Gangshan Township is the development center of fastener industry in Taiwan.

    The same with other ESTPs in Taiwan, the busi-ness which wants to invest in Kaohsiung ESTP must conform with the scope of introduced industries, in-cluding (1) industries related to cleaner production technology; (2) industries that recover waste resources in order to create eco-friendly industry; (3) industries that recover and convert resources into new product; (4) industries involved in emerging and strategic envi-ronmental technologies; (5) industries in production of equipment and system of renewable energy; and (6) industries that deal with solutions for key aspects of environmental protection [12]. Currently, among 34 companies in the ESTP, 14 and 8 firms are classified as resource recycling and cleaner production, respec-tively.

    2. Recyclers of Kaohsiung ESTP

    As mentioned above, 14 firms are classified as

    resource recycling, 8 of them had begun operations, and 5 of them had recycling benefits in 2007-2009. A brief description of each recycler having important re-cycling benefits is as follows (Fig. 1): (1) WRC Co.: to recycle wastewater sludge from the

    electroplating processes to produce Zn and Cu concentrate. The WRC has utilized the waste steam of the Gangshan municipal incinerator to dry its sludge. This is an exemplary example of energy recycling and carbon reduction.

    (2) HJE Co.: to recycle spent catalyst from petro-chemical refineries to recover rare metal, such as Mo, V, and Ni.

    (3) LTD Co.: to recycle waste lead-acid battery from motorcycle/auto recycler or repair plant to retrieve the pig lead.

    (4) WGC Co.: to recycle waste CD or DVD to re-

  • Chen et al.: Environmental Synergies of Kaohsiung ESTP 205




    Gangshan Incinerator

    Electroplating WWTP




    Cu and Zn Concentrate

    Petrochemical Refinery Spent


    LCD Panel Manufacturer

    Waste Glass Substrate

    Recycled Glass Substrate

    Motor and Auto Recycler

    Motor and Auto Repair Plant

    Pb Battery Factory

    Waste Pb Battery

    Pig Pb Chemical Plant

    Mo, V, Ni

    CD/DVD Manufacturer