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  • Page 1 of 40

    Institute of Technology Nirma University

    B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department

    CL101 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES

    (ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES SECTION)

    Literature Abstract (Lecture - 1)

    ENVIRONMENT- DEFINITION AND MEANING:

    ENVIRONMENT refers to the surrounding conditions more scientifically the PHYSICAL,

    CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL conditions.

    COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT:

    ENVIRONMENT

    ATMOSPHERE LITHOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE BIOSPHERE

    Troposphere Core

    Stratosphere Mantle

    Mesosphere Crust

    Thermosphere

    ATMOSPHERE It is the envelope of gases surrounding the earth, comprising a complex mixture of major, minor & trace components.

    LITHOSPHERE It refers to the solid layers of rock materials, on the continents and below the oceans.

    HYDROSPHERE It refers to the layer / cover of water on the earths surface in the form of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes and ponds.

    BIOSPHERE It collectively covers the portions of Atmosphere, Lithosphere and Hydrosphere which supports all the life forms.

  • Page 2 of 40

    ENVIRONMENTAL DIVISIONS:

    From the scientific study point of view, the overall environment & each component thereof is

    divided into the following two divisions.

    1) PHYSICAL / ABIOTIC (Non-living) Environment. 2) BIOLOGICAL / BIOTIC (living) Environment.

    THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENT:

    The environment in totality is not a single element but it comprises of the 4 components viz

    Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Thus the complete nature of

    environment and its study requires the lawful application of techniques and knowledge of all the

    streams of science and technology.

    SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES:

    The Development to be in pace with environmental protection and conservation, vast scope lies in

    all disciplines of science and technology towards-

    Study and exploring the nature.

    Technological developments.

    Practical applications and implementations.

    Post implementation impacts and problems.

    Remedial measures and solution findings to the problems.

    Means to conserve the nature and environment.

  • Page 3 of 40

    Institute of Technology Nirma University

    B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES

    Literature Abstract (Lecture 2 + 3)

    PRESENT SCENARIO OF ENVIRONMENT WORLD

    Excessive consumption of natural resources:

    The latest WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) report on state of worlds ecology says that

    Humans are consuming 20% more natural resources than the earths biological capacity to produce

    them.

    Higher resources demand:

    According to the Living Planet report 2002, Humanity has been running an ecological deficit since

    the 1980s, and if the present trend continues, by 2050, to sustain the humanity, we would be needing

    resources equal to two earths.

    PRESENT SCENARIO OF ENVIRONMENT INDIA:

    India is a land of physical, ecological, social, cultural and linguistic diversity. Bounded by the

    Himalayas in the North and Indian Ocean in the South, it has a multitude of climates, soils and

    geographical areas and consequently habitats, flora, fauna and wildlife.

    The important aspects of environmental scenario in India are highlighted as-

    Population Explosion-Very High Rate Of Population Growth:

    Water Pollution: -Discharge of Industrial Waste with high organic content in the river water:

    -Discharge of Hot Industrial Waste in the river water:

    Air Pollution:

    Land Pollution & Ground Water Contamination:

    Deforestation:

  • Page 4 of 40

    NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION:

    Pollution is the burning issue of the day at the global level. A combined effort to control pollution

    has to be made by all government agencies, technologists, industrialists, agriculturists and last but

    not least the common man.

    Thus there is an urgent need to create awareness in every individual towards-

    Control of environmental pollution.

    Natural resources conservation.

    Land management.

    Development of non-polluting sources of energy.

    Environmental education.

    Environmental laws.

    ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION:

    Each and every individual and collectively the whole population from all walks of life must

    contribute towards environmental protection. This can be achieved by setting objective & guidelines

    and structured system of environmental education.

    In this direction, large number of workshops, seminars, training programmes, etc. have been and

    are being conducted across the world.

    Objectives of Environmental Education:

    Six Objectives and Guiding Principles of Environmental Education.

  • Page 5 of 40

    ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE:

    Organization of Environmental Education System

    The environmental education can be imparted in two ways-

    FORMAL EDUCATION NON FORMAL EDUCATION

    The formal education is given in teaching

    centers as schools, colleges / institutions,

    universities etc.

    It is having a well defined & systematic

    curriculum (syllabus) and specific period of

    teaching and evaluation.

    The formal education is provided at

    different levels of studies as-

    Pre Primary School

    Primary School

    Secondary School

    Higher Secondary School

    College (Graduation & Post Graduation Level)-

    For a majority portion of the population

    that still does not have adequate access to

    the formal education, environmental

    education and awareness can be acquired

    by programmes that fall outside the formal

    education system.

    It includes organization of extra curricular

    activities like eco development camps,

    posters & essay writing competitions,

    exhibitions, seminars, nature camps, nature

    club activities, audio-visual slides, mobile

    exhibitions etc.

    It also include observing and celebrating

    days like World Environment Day

    Vehicle Free Day World Forest Day

    etc.

  • Page 6 of 40

    Institute of Technology Nirma University

    B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES

    Literature Abstract (Lecture 4 + 5)

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Pollution is referred to the direct or indirect alteration of the environment in such a way that it

    interferes with the human health, the quality of life and the natural functioning of the

    ecosystems.

    Pollution is an undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment. Any change in the environment which contributes to its deterioration is called

    pollution.

    Pollution is the contamination of the environment or destruction of the purity, safety and sanctity of the environment.

    The substance which pollutes the environment or becomes the cause for the environmental pollution is called as pollutant.

    CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS:

    - On the basis of existence in nature:

    Quantitative

    Qualitative

    - On the basis of formation:

    Primary (Particulate matter of natural origin as dust, seeds, pollen grains )

    Secondary (sulphur trioxide ,nitrogen dioxide, acid rain)

    - On the basis of characteristics (from Ecosystem point view):

    Bio-degradable ( Organic matter , sewage food waste)

    Non-biodegradable(various plastics, inorganic materials and radioactive materials)

  • Page 7 of 40

    SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    Natural resources Man made (Anthropogenic sources)

    -Volcanic Eruptions -Urbanization

    -Forest fires -Industrialization

    -Dust storms -Vehicular pollution

    -Pollens, cysts, spores -Population explosion ,over use

    -Natural organic matter decay -Unscientific Agriculture activities

    -Radioactive pollution -Deforestation

    -Bacteria -Nuclear explosions ,explosives

    mining and quarrying activities

    TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

    Air Pollution (Atmospheric pollution), Water pollution, Land\Soil pollution, Solid Wastes, Noise

    pollution, Radioactive Pollution.

    EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT:

    Pollution has various adverse effects on both-

    1. Biotic (Living) components of the environment

    2. Abiotic (Non-living) components of the environment.

  • Page 8 of 40

    Institute of Technology Nirma University

    B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES

    Literature Abstract (Lecture 6 to 9)

    AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL

    AIR POLLUTION:

    Air pollution refers to the atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such

    concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects on man and the environment.

    AIR POLLUTION (Definition):

    According to Bureau of Indian Standards, IS 4167 (1966): The presence in ambient atmospheres

    of substances, generally resulting from the activity of man, in sufficient concentration, present for a

    sufficient time and under circumstances such as to inte