(ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES SECTION) - equal to two earths. ... posters essay writing competitions, ... Water pollution, Land\Soil pollution, Solid Wastes, Noise pollution,

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<ul><li><p>Page 1 of 40 </p><p>Institute of Technology Nirma University </p><p>B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department </p><p>CL101 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES </p><p>(ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES SECTION) </p><p>Literature Abstract (Lecture - 1) </p><p>ENVIRONMENT- DEFINITION AND MEANING: </p><p>ENVIRONMENT refers to the surrounding conditions more scientifically the PHYSICAL, </p><p>CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL conditions. </p><p>COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT: </p><p> ENVIRONMENT </p><p>ATMOSPHERE LITHOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE BIOSPHERE </p><p> Troposphere Core </p><p> Stratosphere Mantle </p><p> Mesosphere Crust </p><p> Thermosphere </p><p> ATMOSPHERE It is the envelope of gases surrounding the earth, comprising a complex mixture of major, minor &amp; trace components. </p><p> LITHOSPHERE It refers to the solid layers of rock materials, on the continents and below the oceans. </p><p> HYDROSPHERE It refers to the layer / cover of water on the earths surface in the form of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes and ponds. </p><p> BIOSPHERE It collectively covers the portions of Atmosphere, Lithosphere and Hydrosphere which supports all the life forms. </p></li><li><p>Page 2 of 40 </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL DIVISIONS: </p><p>From the scientific study point of view, the overall environment &amp; each component thereof is </p><p>divided into the following two divisions. </p><p>1) PHYSICAL / ABIOTIC (Non-living) Environment. 2) BIOLOGICAL / BIOTIC (living) Environment. </p><p>THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENT: </p><p>The environment in totality is not a single element but it comprises of the 4 components viz </p><p>Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere. Thus the complete nature of </p><p>environment and its study requires the lawful application of techniques and knowledge of all the </p><p>streams of science and technology. </p><p>SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES: </p><p>The Development to be in pace with environmental protection and conservation, vast scope lies in </p><p>all disciplines of science and technology towards- </p><p> Study and exploring the nature. </p><p> Technological developments. </p><p> Practical applications and implementations. </p><p> Post implementation impacts and problems. </p><p> Remedial measures and solution findings to the problems. </p><p> Means to conserve the nature and environment. </p></li><li><p>Page 3 of 40 </p><p>Institute of Technology Nirma University </p><p>B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES </p><p>Literature Abstract (Lecture 2 + 3) </p><p>PRESENT SCENARIO OF ENVIRONMENT WORLD </p><p>Excessive consumption of natural resources: </p><p>The latest WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) report on state of worlds ecology says that </p><p>Humans are consuming 20% more natural resources than the earths biological capacity to produce </p><p>them. </p><p>Higher resources demand: </p><p>According to the Living Planet report 2002, Humanity has been running an ecological deficit since </p><p>the 1980s, and if the present trend continues, by 2050, to sustain the humanity, we would be needing </p><p>resources equal to two earths. </p><p>PRESENT SCENARIO OF ENVIRONMENT INDIA: </p><p>India is a land of physical, ecological, social, cultural and linguistic diversity. Bounded by the </p><p>Himalayas in the North and Indian Ocean in the South, it has a multitude of climates, soils and </p><p>geographical areas and consequently habitats, flora, fauna and wildlife. </p><p>The important aspects of environmental scenario in India are highlighted as- </p><p> Population Explosion-Very High Rate Of Population Growth: </p><p> Water Pollution: -Discharge of Industrial Waste with high organic content in the river water: </p><p>-Discharge of Hot Industrial Waste in the river water: </p><p> Air Pollution: </p><p> Land Pollution &amp; Ground Water Contamination: </p><p> Deforestation: </p></li><li><p>Page 4 of 40 </p><p>NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: </p><p>Pollution is the burning issue of the day at the global level. A combined effort to control pollution </p><p>has to be made by all government agencies, technologists, industrialists, agriculturists and last but </p><p>not least the common man. </p><p>Thus there is an urgent need to create awareness in every individual towards- </p><p> Control of environmental pollution. </p><p> Natural resources conservation. </p><p> Land management. </p><p> Development of non-polluting sources of energy. </p><p> Environmental education. </p><p> Environmental laws. </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: </p><p>Each and every individual and collectively the whole population from all walks of life must </p><p>contribute towards environmental protection. This can be achieved by setting objective &amp; guidelines </p><p>and structured system of environmental education. </p><p>In this direction, large number of workshops, seminars, training programmes, etc. have been and </p><p>are being conducted across the world. </p><p>Objectives of Environmental Education: </p><p>Six Objectives and Guiding Principles of Environmental Education. </p></li><li><p>Page 5 of 40 </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION STRUCTURE: </p><p>Organization of Environmental Education System </p><p>The environmental education can be imparted in two ways- </p><p>FORMAL EDUCATION NON FORMAL EDUCATION </p><p>The formal education is given in teaching </p><p>centers as schools, colleges / institutions, </p><p>universities etc. </p><p>It is having a well defined &amp; systematic </p><p>curriculum (syllabus) and specific period of </p><p>teaching and evaluation. </p><p>The formal education is provided at </p><p>different levels of studies as- </p><p> Pre Primary School </p><p> Primary School </p><p> Secondary School </p><p> Higher Secondary School </p><p> College (Graduation &amp; Post Graduation Level)- </p><p>For a majority portion of the population </p><p>that still does not have adequate access to </p><p>the formal education, environmental </p><p>education and awareness can be acquired </p><p>by programmes that fall outside the formal </p><p>education system. </p><p>It includes organization of extra curricular </p><p>activities like eco development camps, </p><p>posters &amp; essay writing competitions, </p><p>exhibitions, seminars, nature camps, nature </p><p>club activities, audio-visual slides, mobile </p><p>exhibitions etc. </p><p>It also include observing and celebrating </p><p>days like World Environment Day </p><p>Vehicle Free Day World Forest Day </p><p>etc. </p></li><li><p>Page 6 of 40 </p><p>Institute of Technology Nirma University </p><p>B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES </p><p>Literature Abstract (Lecture 4 + 5) </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION </p><p>Pollution is referred to the direct or indirect alteration of the environment in such a way that it </p><p>interferes with the human health, the quality of life and the natural functioning of the </p><p>ecosystems. </p><p> Pollution is an undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment. Any change in the environment which contributes to its deterioration is called </p><p>pollution. </p><p> Pollution is the contamination of the environment or destruction of the purity, safety and sanctity of the environment. </p><p> The substance which pollutes the environment or becomes the cause for the environmental pollution is called as pollutant. </p><p>CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS: </p><p>- On the basis of existence in nature: </p><p> Quantitative </p><p> Qualitative </p><p>- On the basis of formation: </p><p> Primary (Particulate matter of natural origin as dust, seeds, pollen grains ) </p><p> Secondary (sulphur trioxide ,nitrogen dioxide, acid rain) </p><p> - On the basis of characteristics (from Ecosystem point view): </p><p> Bio-degradable ( Organic matter , sewage food waste) </p><p> Non-biodegradable(various plastics, inorganic materials and radioactive materials) </p></li><li><p>Page 7 of 40 </p><p> SOURCES OF POLLUTION </p><p> Natural resources Man made (Anthropogenic sources) </p><p> -Volcanic Eruptions -Urbanization </p><p> -Forest fires -Industrialization </p><p> -Dust storms -Vehicular pollution </p><p> -Pollens, cysts, spores -Population explosion ,over use </p><p> -Natural organic matter decay -Unscientific Agriculture activities </p><p> -Radioactive pollution -Deforestation </p><p> -Bacteria -Nuclear explosions ,explosives </p><p> mining and quarrying activities </p><p>TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: </p><p>Air Pollution (Atmospheric pollution), Water pollution, Land\Soil pollution, Solid Wastes, Noise </p><p>pollution, Radioactive Pollution. </p><p>EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT: </p><p>Pollution has various adverse effects on both- </p><p>1. Biotic (Living) components of the environment </p><p>2. Abiotic (Non-living) components of the environment. </p></li><li><p>Page 8 of 40 </p><p>Institute of Technology Nirma University </p><p>B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES </p><p>Literature Abstract (Lecture 6 to 9) </p><p>AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL </p><p>AIR POLLUTION: </p><p>Air pollution refers to the atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such </p><p>concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects on man and the environment. </p><p>AIR POLLUTION (Definition): </p><p>According to Bureau of Indian Standards, IS 4167 (1966): The presence in ambient atmospheres </p><p>of substances, generally resulting from the activity of man, in sufficient concentration, present for a </p><p>sufficient time and under circumstances such as to interfere with comfort, health or welfare of </p><p>persons or with reasonable use or enjoyment of property. </p><p>According to Engineers Joint Council, U.S.A: Air pollution means the presence in the outdoor </p><p>atmosphere of one or more contaminants such as dust, fumes, gas, mist, odour, smoke or vapour in </p><p>quantities of characteristics and of duration as to be injurious to human, plant or animal life or to </p><p>property or which reasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property. </p><p>CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS: </p><p>The Air pollutants are classified as- </p><p>- According to origin: </p><p> PRIMARY POLLUTANTS These are directly emitted from the source into the atmosphere. Examples-Sulphur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Hydrocarbons, ash, smoke, dust, fumes, mist, </p><p>radioactive materials etc. </p><p> SECONDARY POLLUTANTS These are formed in the atmosphere by chemical interactions between primary pollutants and atmospheric constituents, generally by photo-chemical reactions, </p><p>hydrolysis or oxidation reactions. </p><p>Examples-Ozone, Peroxy acyl Nitrate (PAN), Sulphur Trioxide, Aldehydes, Ketones, Photo-</p><p>chemical Smog etc. </p></li><li><p>Page 9 of 40 </p><p>- According to Chemical compositions: </p><p> ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Biodegradable, For example-Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, amines, alcohols etc. </p><p> INORGANIC POLLUTANTS Non-biodegradable, For example-Non-carbon compounds, Nitrogen compounds, Sulphur compounds, Halogen compounds, Oxidising agents etc. </p><p>- According to the State of matter: </p><p> GASEOUS POLLUTANTS These get mixed with the air and do not normally settle down. For example-CO, NOx, SO2 etc </p><p> PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS These comprise of finely divided solids (or liquids) dispersed in the air and often exist in colloidal state as aerosols. </p><p>For example-Smoke, fumes, dust, mist, fog, smog and spray etc. These are further divided into- </p><p>i) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) </p><p>ii) Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). </p><p>CAUSES / SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION: </p><p>- Natural Sources </p><p>- Man made (Anthropogenic) Sources. </p><p>EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: </p><p>Due to rapid developments and industrialization the pollutants are being discharged and </p><p>accumulating in so high concentrations that it is beyond the self cleaning capacity of the </p><p>environment to nullify their effects. As a result, this is having many adverse effects which can be </p><p>summarized as effects on- </p><p> On human health </p><p> On animals </p><p> On plants </p><p> On materials </p><p> On climate </p><p> On aesthetic beauty </p><p>Effects of some specific pollutants as: </p><p>Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOX). </p></li><li><p>Page 10 of 40 </p><p>CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION: </p><p>Air pollution control methods- </p><p> Source correction methods </p><p> Pollution control equipment </p><p> Diffusion(dilution) of pollutant in air </p><p> Vegetation </p><p> Zoning(The planning aspect) </p><p> Legislation </p><p>AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT: </p><p>The Air Pollution control equipments are classified as follows: </p><p>1. Control devices for particulate contaminants 2. Control devices for gaseous contaminants </p><p>(1) Control devices for particulate contaminants- </p><p> Gravitational settling </p><p> Cyclone separators </p><p> Fabric filters </p><p> Electrostatic precipitator </p><p> Wet collectors (scrubbers) </p><p>(2) Control devices for gaseous contaminants- </p><p> Wet absorption methods. </p><p> Dry absorption methods. </p></li><li><p>Page 11 of 40 </p><p>Institute of Technology Nirma University </p><p>B. Tech. (First Year) - Civil Engineering Department </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY STUDIES </p><p>Literature Abstract (Lecture 10 to 13) </p><p>WATER POLLUTION </p><p>Water Pollution: Water pollution is the presence of any foreign substances (organic, inorganic, </p><p>radiological, biological) in water which tends to degrade the quality so as to constitute a hazard or </p><p>impair the usefulness of water USPHS, Drinking Water Standards). Courts of law define water </p><p>pollution as any impairment of water quality that makes water unsuitable for beneficial use. It can </p><p>also be defined as the presence of foreign substances, either from natural or man-made sources, </p><p>which contaminates the water and if consumed is harmful to life. Contaminated water is harmful </p><p>because of its toxicity, low level of oxygen and has the potential to spread epidemic diseases. </p><p>Classification of Water Pollutants: </p><p>Organic Pollutants: </p><p>1) Oxygen demanding wastes: These include domestic and animal sewage, biodegradable organic compounds and industrial wastes from the food mills. </p><p>2) Disease causing waste: These include pathogenic microorganisms which may enter the water along with sewage and other wastes and may cause tremendous damage to the public health. </p><p>3) Synthetic organic compounds: These are man made materials such as synthetic pesticides, food additives, insecticides, etc. </p><p>4) Sewage and agricultural runoff: Sewage and runoff from agricultural lands supply plant nutrients which may stimulate the growth of algae and other aquatic weeds resulting in eutrophication. </p><p>5) Oil: Oil pollution may take place because of oil spills from cargo oil tankers on the seas, losses during off-shore exploration and production of oil. </p><p>Inorganic Pollutants: </p><p>The inorganic pollutants include mineral acids, inorganic salts, cyanides, sulphate, etc. </p><p>Suspended Solids and sediments: </p><p>1) Sediments: Sediments are mostly contributed by soil erosion by natural processes, agricultural development, construction activities, etc. </p><p>2) Suspended solids: Suspended solids in water mainly comprise silt, sand and minerals eroded from the land. </p></li><li><p>Page 12 of 40 </p><p>Radioactive Materials: </p><p>Radioactive pollutants like Sr90, I 131, Cs137, Co60, Ra226, etc may originate from the anthropogenic </p><p>activities like mining and processing of ores, from nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors, from </p><p>testing and use of nuclear weaponry, etc. </p><p>Heat: </p><p>Waste heat which is discharged in water through waste hot water, etc acts as a pollutant. </p><p>Effects of the Water Pollutants on Water Quality: </p><p>1. Change in colour: Water acquires colour when textile and dyeing operation, food processing units, mining, paper production, animal slaughter houses, etc discharge their waste effluents into </p><p>water bodies. Objectionably, coloured water is aesthetically unacceptable an...</p></li></ul>

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