ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

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13e. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE. CHAPTER 14: Environmental Hazards and Human Health. Core Case Study: BPA Controversy (1). Hormones Hormone mimics Estrogen mimics Bisphenol A, an estrogen mimic. Core Case Study: BPA Controversy (2). Found in hardened plastics Baby bottles Sipping cups - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE13eCHAPTER 14:Environmental Hazards and Human Health</p></li><li><p>Core Case Study: BPA Controversy (1) HormonesHormone mimicsEstrogen mimicsBisphenol A, an estrogen mimic</p></li><li><p>Core Case Study: BPA Controversy (2) Found in hardened plasticsBaby bottlesSipping cupsReusable water bottlesSports drink and juice bottlesMicrowave dishesFood storage containersNearly all canned food liners</p></li><li><p>Core Case Study: BPA Controversy (3) 93% of Americans have BPA in their bodiesControversy over health riskHuman health Fetuses Infants </p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-1, p. 344</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-2, p. 344</p></li><li><p>14-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face?Concept 14-1 People face health hazards from biological, chemical, physical, and cultural factors, and from the lifestyle choices they make.</p></li><li><p>Risk and HazardsRiskProbabilityRisk assessmentRisk management</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-3, p. 345</p></li><li><p>Major Types of HazardsBiologicalChemicalPhysicalCulturalLifestyle</p></li><li><p>14-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face?Concept 14-2 The most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and malaria.</p></li><li><p>Biological HazardsNontransmissible diseasesTransmissible (infectious) diseasePathogensEpidemicPandemic</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-4, p. 348</p></li><li><p>Fetus and babiesAirWaterFoodInsectsWild animalsLivestockPetsHumansOther humansFig. 14-4, p. 348</p></li><li><p>Stepped ArtFig. 14-4, p. 348</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-5, p. 348</p></li><li><p>Measles(virus)Hepatitis B(virus)Tuberculosis(bacteria)Malaria(protozoa)Diarrheal diseases(bacteria and viruses)HIV/AIDS(virus)Pneumonia and flu(bacteria and viruses)Disease(type of agent)Deaths per year3.2 million3.0 million2.1 million2.0 million1.6 million1 million800,000Fig. 14-5, p. 348</p></li><li><p>Case Study: the Tuberculosis Threat (1) TB spreading rapidly1 in 3 infected; 5-10% will eventually develop it2008: 9.3 million active casesPoor countries in Asia and Africa~ 1.6 million will die</p></li><li><p>Case Study: the Tuberculosis Threat (2) Inadequate screeningIncreased resistance to antibioticsIncreased person-to-person contactsInadequate treatmentMultidrug resistant TB</p></li><li><p>Science Focus: Growing Resistance to AntibioticsHigh bacterial reproductive rateGenetic resistanceGlobal travelUse of pesticidesOveruse of antibiotics</p></li><li><p>Most Deadly Viral DiseasesInfluenza/fluHIV AIDSHepatitis BOther virusesWest NileSARS</p></li><li><p>Case Study: HIV/AIDS Epidemic (1)Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Human immunodeficiency virusSpread byUnsafe sexSharing needlesInfected mother to childExposure to infected blood</p></li><li><p>Case Study: HIV/AIDS Epidemic (2)Living with AIDS 200833 million worldwide2/3 in sub-Saharan Africa1 million in the U.S.2.7 million new cases27 million deaths, 1981-2008</p></li><li><p>Case Study: Malaria1 in 5 at riskParasite spread by mosquitoes Kills 2700 people per day, mostly in AfricaMosquito nets for bedsSpray homes with DDT</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-6, p. 350</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-7, p. 351</p></li><li><p>Merozoites enterbloodstreamand develop intogametocytescausing malariaand makinginfected persona new reservoirSporozoitespenetrate liverand developinto merozoitesFemale mosquito injectsPlasmodium sporozoitesinto human host.Plasmodiumdevelop inmosquitoFemale mosquito bitesinfected human, ingestingblood that containsPlasmodium gametocytesFig. 14-7, p. 351</p></li><li><p>Sporozoites penetrate liverand develop into merozoitesFemale mosquito bites infected human,ingesting blood that contains PlasmodiumgametocytesMerozoites enter blood-stream and develop into gametocytes causing malaria and makinginfected person a new reservoirFemale mosquito injects Plasmodium sporozoites into human hostPlasmodiumdevelops inmosquitoStepped ArtFig. 14-7, p. 351</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-8, p. 351</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-9, p. 352</p><p>Fig. 14-9, p. 352Increase research on tropicaldiseases and vaccinesReduce povertyDecrease malnutritionImprove drinking water qualityReduce unnecessary use ofantibioticsEducate people to take all of anantibiotic prescriptionReduce antibiotic use to promotelivestock growthRequire careful hand washing by all medical personnelImmunize children against majorviral diseasesProvide oral rehydration fordiarrhea victimsConduct global campaign to reduceHIV/AIDSInfectious DiseasesSolutions</p></li><li><p>14-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face?Concept 14-3 There is growing concern about chemicals that can cause cancer and birth defects and disrupt the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.</p></li><li><p>Chemical Hazards (1)Toxic chemicalsCarcinogensMutagensTeratogens</p></li><li><p>Chemical Hazards (2)Immune system disruptorsNeurotoxinsHormonally active agents (HAA)DDT, PCBs, atrazine, aluminum, mercury, BPA, PCBsMales of many species becoming more feminineBPA of special concern</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-10, p. 353</p><p>Fig. 14-10, p. 353AtmosphereVegetationSurface waterVegetationHumansAnimalsCropsGroundwaterRockWater tableFishSurface waterSoilRockWater tableGroundwater</p></li><li><p>Science Focus: Mercury (1)Nerve and organ damageBirth defectsNatural sourcesHuman activitiesCoal burning</p></li><li><p>Science Focus: Mercury (2)Humans exposed throughInhaling vaporized mercury and mercury compoundsContaminated fishHigh fructose corn syrup30,000 to 60,000 U.S. newborns likely have reduced IQNeed to end coal burning and waste incineration</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-A, p. 354</p><p>Fig. 14-A, p. 354ControlSharply reduce mercury emissions from coal-burning plants and incineratorsHeavily tax each unit of mercuryemitted by coal-burning plants andincineratorsRequire labels on all productscontaining mercuryCollect and recycle mercury-containing electric switches, relays, compact fluorescent lightbulbs, and dry-cell batteriesPhase out waste incinerationRemove mercury from coal before itis burnedSwitch from coal to natural gas andrenewable energy resources such aswind, solar cells, and hydrogenConvert coal to liquid or gaseous fuelPhase out use of mercury inbatteries, TVs, compact fluorescentlightbulbs, and all other productsunless they are recycledSolutionsMercury PollutionPrevention</p></li><li><p>14-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards?Concept 14-4A Scientists use live laboratory animals, case reports of poisonings, and epidemiological studies to estimate the toxicity of chemicals, but these methods have limitations.Concept 14-4B We can reduce the major risks we face by becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices.</p></li><li><p>Determining Chemical SafetyToxicologyToxicityDoseWater and fat soluble toxinsPersistenceBiological magnification</p></li><li><p>Type and Severity of Health DamageResponse dose dependent Acute effectChronic effect</p></li><li><p>Case Study: Protecting Children from Toxic ChemicalsToxic chemicals in newborns bloodInfants and children more susceptibleIncreased intake of air, water, food for their body weightsPut contaminated objects in their mouthsLess-developed immune systems</p></li><li><p>Estimating ToxicityTest on live animalsDose-response curveLethal doseMedian lethal dose (LD50)Extrapolation from data</p></li><li><p>Table 14-1, p. 357</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-12, p. 360</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-12, p. 360Tennis shoesCan containphthalatesToysVinyl toyscontainphthalatesComputerFlame retardantcoatings of plasticcasing and wiringWater bottleCan containbisphenol-AFruitImported fruit maycontain pesticidesbanned in the U.S.SofaFoam padding containsflame retardants andperfluorochemicalsTVWiring and plastic casingcontain flame retardantsCarpetPadding and carpet fiberscontain flame retardants,perfluorochemicals, andpesticidesMattressFlame retardants in stuffingBaby bottleCan containbisphenol-AClothingCan containperfluorochemicalsTeddy bearSome stuffed animalsmade oversees containflame retardants and/orpesticidesShampooPerfluorochemicalsto add shineNail polishPerfluorochemicalsand phthalatesPerfumePhthalatesHairsprayPhthalatesFoodSome food containsbisphenol-AMilkFat contains dioxinsand flame retardantsFrying panNonstick coating containsperfluorochemicalsTile floorNonstick coating containsperfluorochemicals,phthalates, and pesticides</p></li><li><p>Protection against Harmful ChemicalsPollution preventionPrecautionary principlePersistent organic pollutants (POPs)The dirty dozen</p></li><li><p>Individuals Matter: Ray TurnerCFCs harm the ozone layerRay Turner worked at Hughes AircraftDeveloped citrus-based compounds to clean electronics instead of CFC-based compounds</p></li><li><p>14-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?Concept 14-5 We can reduce the major risks we face by becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices.</p></li><li><p>Evaluating Risks (1)Risk analysis (risk assessment)Comparative risk analysisRisk managementRisk communicationPoverty the greatest risk</p></li><li><p>Evaluating Risks (2)Risks from lifestylesDont smokeLose excess weightEat healthy foodsExercise regularlyLittle or no alcoholAvoid excess sunlightPractice safe sex</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-13, p. 361</p></li><li><p>MeaslesHepatitis BWork-relatedinjury and diseaseMalariaAutomobile accidentsTuberculosisDiarrheaHIV/AIDSAir pollutionPneumonia and fluTobaccoPoverty/malnutrition/disease cycleCause of deathAnnual deaths11 million (150)5.4 million (74)3.2 million (44)2.4 million (33)2 million (27)1.6 million (22)1.5 million (21)1.2 million (16)1.1 million (15)1 million (14)1 million (14)800,000 (11)Fig. 14-13, p. 361</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-15, p. 364</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-15, p. 364</p></li><li><p>Fig. 14-16, p. 364</p></li><li><p>Cause of DeathDeaths442,000101,500 (43,450 auto)85,00075,000 (16,000 from AIDS)55,00030,60020,62217,000Illegal drug useHomicidesSuicidesPollutants/toxinsInfectiousdiseasesAlcohol useAccidentsTobacco useFig. 14-16, p. 364</p></li><li><p>Estimating Risks from TechnologiesSystem reliability (%) = Technological reliability x Human reliabilityDifficulties in estimating reliabilityPerceived risk vs. actual risk</p></li><li><p>Improving Risk EvaluationCompare risksDetermine how much risk you are willing to acceptDetermine the actual risk involvedConcentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices</p></li><li><p>Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #1We face significant hazards from infectious diseases such as flu, AIDS, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and malaria, and from exposure to chemicals that can cause cancers and birth defects and disrupt the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.</p></li><li><p>Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #2Because of the difficulty in evaluating the harm caused by exposure to chemicals, many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention. </p></li><li><p>Three Big Ideas from This Chapter - #3Becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices can reduce the major risks we face. </p></li><li><p>Animation: HIV ReplicationPLAYANIMATION</p></li><li><p>Animation: Life Cycle of PlasmodiumPLAYANIMATION</p></li><li><p>Animation: Formation of Photochemical SmogPLAYANIMATION</p></li><li><p>Animation: Thermal Invasion and SmogPLAYANIMATION</p></li><li><p>Animation: Positron-Emission Tomography PLAYANIMATION</p></li><li><p>Video: To See AgainPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: New NervesPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Fat Man WalkingPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Second-Chance HeartPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Regenerative Human OrgansPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: The Problem with PorkPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Polio ScarePLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: AIDS Conference in BrazilPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Bird FluPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Beach PollutionPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Food Allergy IncreasePLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: World AIDS DayPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Clean Air ActPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: MTBE PollutionPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: U.S. Earth SummitPLAYVIDEO</p></li><li><p>Video: Frogs GalorePLAYVIDEO</p><p>Figure 14.4: Science: pathways for infectious disease in humans. Question: Can you think of other pathways not shown here? Figure 14.4: Science: pathways for infectious disease in humans. Question: Can you think of other pathways not shown here? Figure 14.5: Global outlook: The World Health Organization estimates that each year, the worlds seven deadliest infectious diseaseskill 11.1 million peoplemost of them poor people in developing countries. This is an average of about 30,400 mostly preventabledeaths every day. It would be roughly equal to wiping out everyone in the U.S. states of Massachusetts and Alabama or all the peoplein Delhi, India, each year. Question: How many people, on average, die prematurely from these diseases every hour? (Data from theWorld Health Organization, 2009)Figure 14.7: Science: the life cycle of malaria. Plasmodium parasitescirculate from mosquito to human and back to mosquito.Figure 14.7: Science: the life cycle of malaria. Plasmodium parasitescirculate from mosquito to human and back to mosquito.</p><p>Figure 14.9: Ways to prevent or reduce the incidence of infectiousdiseases, especially in developing countries. Question: Which threeof these approaches do you think are the most important?</p><p>Figure 14.10: Potential pathways on which toxic chemicals can movethrough the living and nonliving environment.</p><p>Figure 14.A: Ways to prevent or control inputs of mercury into the environment from human sourcesmostly coal-burning power plants and incinerators. Question: Which four of these solutions do you thinkare the most important?</p><p>Figure 14.12: Some potentially harmful chemicals found in most homes. Most people have traces of these chemicalsin their blood and body tissues. We do not know the long-term effects of exposure to low levels of such chemicals.(Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and New YorkState Department of Health) Questions: Does the fact that we do not know much about long-term harmful effectsof these chemicals make you more likely or less likely to minimize your exposure to them? Why?</p><p>Figure 14.13: Global outlook: number of deaths per year in the world from various causes. Numbers in parentheses give these deaths in terms of the number of fullyloaded 200-passenger jet airplanes crashing every day of the year with no survivors. Because of the lack of media coverage of the largest annual causes of death andsensational coverage of other causes of death, most people are misinformed and guided by irrational fears about the comparative levels of risk. Question: Whichthree of these items are most likely to shorten your life span? (Data from World Health Organization, 2007)Figure 14.16: Annual deaths in the United States from tobacco use and other causes in 2004 (the latest data available). Smoking is byfar the nations leading cause of preventable death, causing more premature deaths each year than all the other categories in this figurecombined. (Data from U.S. National Center for Health Statistics and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. SurgeonGeneral, 2007)</p></li></ul>