environmental management: trends and policies dr. kazi f. jalal faculty, harvard extension school...

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  • ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: TRENDS AND POLICIESDr. Kazi F. JalalFaculty, Harvard Extension School

    ENVR-E11511/20/07

  • Outline of Lecture a. Global milestones in EMb. Development and environment trendsc. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)d. Role of private sector in EMe. EM policies - water, energy & forestry sectorsf. International cooperation on EM

  • A New Framework for Environmental Management

    The World we have created today as a result of our thinking thus far has problems that can not be solved by thinking the way we thought when we created them

    -Albert Einstein

  • a. GLOBAL MILESTONES

  • GLOBAL MILESTONES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT The Concept of Environment Emerging1960s United Nations Conference on Human Environment, Stockholm (1972) United Nations Environment Program (1975) National environmental committees/agencies/ministries Environment legislation & standards1970s UNEPs first high-level meeting (1982) World Commission on Environment & Development (WCED) (1984-87) Bruntland Commission report, Our Common Future is released introducing the concept of sustainable development (1987) Issue of environment brought to political agenda and expanded to include more than pollution and conservation issues1980s

  • GLOBAL MILESTONES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT1990s 1991 Childrens Summit United Nations conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil (1992) WCED Report approved and Agenda 21 adopted Population summit (1992, Cairo) Social Summit (1995, Copenhagen) Womens Summit (1995, Beijing) World Trade Organization established (1995) Human Settlement, HABITAT (1996, Istanbul) World Food Summit (1996, Rome) Rio + 5 conference convened to review the progress of implementing UNCED ( 1997, NY)

  • GLOBAL MILESTONES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Millennium Summit (2000, New York) World Food Summit (2001, Rome) International Conference on Freshwater (2001, Bonn) Financing for Development, high-level conference (2002, Monterrey, Mexico) World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD 2002, Johannesburg, South Africa) World Summit on MDGs (2005), New York WSSD Follow-up (2007) ?2000s

  • b. DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT TRENDS

  • World GDP GrowthSource: The Economics (2002): How many planets? A survey of the Global Environment, July 6, 2002.

  • Access to Water & Sanitation in the Third WorldSource: Bjorn Lomborg(2001)Broken lines are different estimates. Solid lines are best fit.

  • Infectious Disease Death RatesSource: Bulatao (1993), Murray and Lopez (1996)

  • Infant MortalityInfant Mortality per 1000 live birthsSource: Bjorn Lomborg(2001)

  • Better Lives-Past 30 YearsSource: UNEP, GEO3 (2002)

  • c.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

  • Millennium Development Goals(MDGs)*Goal 1: Reduce poverty & hungerGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3: Promote gender equalityGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal 5: Improve maternal healthGoal 6: Combat major diseasesGoal 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8: Develop global partnership

    *www.unmillenniumproject.org (2005)

  • Millennium Development Goals(MDGs)POVERTYGoal: The proportion of people living in extreme poverty in developing countries should be reduced by at least one-half between 1990 and 2015.Website: www.developmentgoals.org

  • MDGsENVIRONMENTGoal: The proportion of the population without access to an improved water source should be reduced by at least on-half between 1990 and 2015. Website: www.developmentgoals.org

  • And the greatest obstacles to achieve these goals are the tariffs and subsidies and barriers that isolate people of developing nations from the great opportunities of the 21st century

    The United States is ready to eliminate all tariffs, subsidies and other barriers to free flow of goods and services as other nations do the same. This is key to overcoming poverty in the worlds poorest nations. It is essential that we promoteprosperity and opportunity for all nations- President BushWorld Summit 2005, NY

  • We can not stand here five years from now, only to promise again to redouble our efforts. It is time to deliver. This calls for developing countries to improve performance and developed countries to fulfill their promise to increase aid. It calls for dismantling trade barriers and eliminating subsidies, that hurt the farmers and small businesses. And it calls for strengthening the private sector and encouraging a vibrant civil society in developing countries-President, The World BankWorld Summit 2005, NY

  • World Summit,2005: Recommendations**UN(2005):Investing in development: A practical plan to achieve the MDGsDevelop MDG-Based poverty strategies by 2006Scale-up pro-poor public investments, domestic resource mobilization and ODAImplement strategies in transparent and exclusive mannerIdentify a dozenfast-track countries for increase in ODAJointly launch quick win actions to save livesIncrease donor support for regional initiativesIncrease ODA from 0.25% of GNP(1993) to 0.44%(2006) to 0.54%(2015) to support MDGsOpen markets to developing countries export by 2006Mobilize support for for global scientific research($7b/yr by 2015)Strengthen coordination within the UN system__________________________________________________*www.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/recommendations.htm

  • d. Role of Private Sector *

    *Brian Nattrass & Mary Altomare (1999) : The Natural Step for Business, New Society Publishers*Chris Laszlo (2003): The Sustainable Company; Island Publishers* WBCSD (2005): Business solution in support of MDGs

  • Sustainability program for industries**Ref: The Natural Step for Business (1999),p-16

  • Private Sectors & SD*

    Establishment of WBCSD (1992) < wbcsd.com>

    Triple bottom line (1998)

    Dow Jones Sustainabilty Index (1999)

    The Equator Principles (2002)

    Eco- labelling (2004)

  • DJSI Criteria

    Criteria for indexing are:Economic: code of conduct, corruption/bribery, corporate governance,risk/crisis managementEnvironmental: eco-efficiency, env.reporting,materials usedSocial: labor practice,occupational health, corp. responsibility,talent attraction, social reporting

  • e. EM POLICIESWATER ENERGYFORESTRY

  • Regional Water TrendsWater has made immense contribution to economic & human development Water has contributed to growth & sustenance of ancient civilizationsPer capita availability is low and is sharply decreasingWater stress (withdrawal against available water) is high and increasingExcessive water during monsoon cause flood & contaminate water distribution systems and open bodies of waterReservoir capacity (as p.c. of annual water flow) is very small

  • Overall Policy ObjectiveTo foster an integrated approach to water service delivery and to water resources management in and among the countries of the region

  • Core Elements of a Water PolicyPromoting effective national water policies and action programsInvesting in water resource management in priority river basins. Improving water services through autonomous and accountable providersSource: ADB, 2001

  • Core Elements of a Water PolicyFostering the efficient and sustainable use and conservation of water in societyIncreasing the mutually beneficial use of shared water resources within and between countries. Facilitating stakeholder consultation, participation, and partnershipsImprove governance through capacity building, monitoring, and evaluation

    Source: ADB, 2001

  • E N E R G Y

    P O L I C Y

  • Core Environmental Elements of an Energy PolicyTackle environmental issues before (not after) they occurUtilize high-grade (low sulfur) coal for energy supply Practice coal washing at the minesUndertake large-scale afforestation programs to create carbon sinks as well as to enhance fuelwood supply

  • Core Environmental Elements of an Energy PolicyDevelop non-conventional sources of energy (solar, biomass, wind, etc.)Practice demand side management by energy conservation in industries, commercial & residential installations Put energy pricing right and withdraw energy subsidyTake all safety measures in energy installations

  • FORESTRYPOLICY

  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO FORESTRY SECTOR

    Excessive and destructive logging Crop and livestock expansion Mangrove forests depletionConstruction of roads through forest lands Growing rural population migrating onto forest landGovernments tenure, taxation, and pricing policies

  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO FORESTRY SECTOR

    Reluctance of communities around forests to invest in forest managementForest fires and pestsIncreasing Intensity of floods Loss of biodiversity and wild-life habitat

  • Core Elements of a Forest PolicyPromoting forest zoning regulations that differentiate between protection forests & production forestsRecognizing the impact of intersectoral development on the forestry sector Restrict terms of access to timber resourcesEncourage growth of high yielding species of industrial and fuel wood plantations in selected degraded forest and grasslands

  • Core Elements of a Forest PolicyPublic consultations on forestry development especially with NGOs and local communitiesReorient forest agencies to play an active role in the planning and management of forests.

  • f. International Cooperation on EMMany organizations and agencies are involved- both UN and non-UN

  • Organizations and Entities InvolvedUNEP (United Nations Environment Program)UNDP (United Nations Develop