Environmental and Social Considerations of Preparatory ... ?· Impacts on the natural and social environment…

Download Environmental and Social Considerations of Preparatory ... ?· Impacts on the natural and social environment…

Post on 30-Jul-2018




0 download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li><p>Environmental and Social Considerations of Preparatory Survey for Grant Aid Cooperation Project </p><p> 29th November, 2010 </p><p>1. Title of the Cooperation Project The Project for the Urgent Improvement of Power Distribution System in Freetown in the </p><p>Republic of Sierra Leone </p><p>2. Type of the Study Preparatory Survey for Grant Aid Cooperation Project </p><p>3. Categorization and its Reason (1) Categorization </p><p>Category B </p><p>(2) Reason for Categorization Impacts on the natural and social environment by this Project are not likely to be </p><p>significant. However several adverse impacts on the environment and society, which are a small scale resettlement and impact on a forest reserve, and other impacts during the construction (temporal traffic control and interruption of power service, air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, waste, noise and vibration, and accidents) will be need to be reviewed in advance in order to avoid and minimize such impacts. </p><p>4. Outline of the Project (1) Background </p><p>The Republic of Sierra Leone (hereinafter referred to as Sierra Leone) is located in the western part of the African continent facing the Atlantic and has a population of 5.32 million (general election statistics in 2007) and a total land area of some 70,000 km2 (similar to the size of Hokkaido Island of Japan). </p><p>The civil war in Sierra Leone ended in 2002 after approximately 11 years of fighting and its recent progress to a development period from the post-war reconstruction period is illustrated by an annual GDP growth rate of 7%. According to this development, the electricity demand, especially in Freetown Metropolitan Area (Western Area), has increased and the electricity demand of Freetown city is estimated as 41MW. However, existing power supply has not satisfied the demand with a high systematical loss caused by the existing overage distribution facility. In order to improve these circumstances, the Government of Japan has been providing </p><p> 1</p></li><li><p>assistance, such as the construction of power generation facility (diesel, 10MW), stretch of distribution lines and construction of substation through Japanese Grant Aid cooperation. Also other donors assistance, such as construction of hydro-power generation facility supported by the World Band, has been provided. The situation of power supply in Freetown Metropolitan Area tends to be improved, however, a high loss of distribution still continues because distribution facility has not meet with the expanded power generation facility. As a result, the final consumers have not received the sufficient and stable electricity. </p><p>Against this background, the Government of Sierra Leone made a request to the Government of Japan for Grant Aid Cooperation Project including construction of a new substation and stretch of distribution lines in the areas with likely high demand in order to promote electrification in these areas. </p><p>(2) Responsible and Implementing Organization The responsible ministry is the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources (hereinafter </p><p>referred to as MEWR) and the implementing organization is the National Power Authority hereinafter referred to as NPA). </p><p>(3) Necessity and Justification of the Project As shown in the following points, necessity and relevance of this Project are high because </p><p>of the direct and indirect effects by implementing the Project; </p><p>1) Beneficiary Population Implementation of this Project will reduce the loss of distribution caused by the overage </p><p>and damaged facility, increase the power supply, and enable to distribute more stable electricity in the target area, Freetown Metropolitan Area. The direct and indirect beneficiary is about 1.83 million people living in Freetown Metropolitan Area. The areas, where the electricity distribution will be improved, include not only the general houses, but also public facilities such as teachers college, hospital, church/mosque, and fishing port. </p><p>2) Purpose and Urgency of the Project Overall goal of this Project is to supply stable electricity in Freetown, and the Project </p><p>purpose is to improve the network of distribution lines in Freetown, to increase the capacity of distribution and to reduce the loss of distribution. Under the circumstance that existing poor distribution facility has not match with the demands and its improvement is greatly required, the newly construction of Goderich substation (hereinafter referred to as S/S), and installation of 33kV and 11kV lines in this Project are quite important in order to improve the electric supply </p><p> 2</p></li><li><p>situation urgently and to be one of the way for securing capital functions. </p><p>3) Compatibility with Master Plan This Project is one of the suggested plans from the Master Plan Study on Power Supply </p><p>in Western Area in the Republic of Sierra Leone implemented by JICA in order to strength the transmission and distribution network based on the demand estimation. And the synergy effects are expected among this Project, existing projects assisted by the Government of Japan with the cooperation of other donors, and the new technical cooperation project of the capacity development for operation and maintenance of electrical supply facility. Therefore, the implementation of this Project is meaningful as one of the program cooperation. </p><p>4) Possibility of Realization under Japans Grant Aid Scheme It is expected to extend and improve the distribution network, and to contribute the safety life of people and the development of social welfare and economic activity in Freetown Metropolitan Area. Therefore it can be reasonable to implement the Project under Japans Grant Aid Scheme. And there are not any issues on the responsible and implementing organizations because MEWR and NPA have experiences of Japans Grant Aid projects. </p><p>(4) Requested Items The requested items are as follows; </p><p> Construction of 33/11kV Goderich S/S Installation of 33kV distribution lines from Wilberforce S/S to Goderich S/S Rehabilitation of 11kV distribution lines Material supply of low voltage distribution equipment and materials </p><p>(5) Contents of the Survey The Survey has the following works; </p><p>000Preparation of the Survey in Japan [001] Analysis of application documents from the Government of Sierra Leone and related documents, </p><p>and understanding the outline [002] Examination of the survey method and the indicators for estimation of the effects by the Projects [003] Examination of the survey policy, method and schedule, and preparation of the draft cooperation </p><p>plan [004] Preparation of the inception report, questionnaire and the survey schedule 100First Field Survey [101] Discussion on the inception report [102] Confirmation of the Project background, purpose, contents, Master Plan and compatibility with </p><p>Master Plan [103] Survey on other donors activities [104] Explanation of Japans Grant Aid scheme [105] Survey on operation and maintenance system </p><p> 3</p></li><li><p>[106] Site survey [107] Survey for facility planning [108] Survey on materials for the Project [109] Survey for construction and installation planning [110] Survey for environmental and social considerations [111] Survey for procurement planning [112] Preparation of the outline design and implementation schedule [113] Discussion of the undertakings by the Sierra Leonean side [114] Preparation of the projects of phase II and phase III according to the Master Plan [115] Discussion on the field report 200Analysis in Japan [201] Explanation of the outline of the first field survey results [202] Preparation of the contents of the Project [203] Examination of the cost reduction based on the outline design [204] Estimation of the reduction of global warming effect [205] Cost comparison with the other donors projects 300Preparation of the Draft Final Report [301] Discussion on the draft final report with the Sierra Leonean side 400Preparation of the Final Report and other documents [401] Preparation and submission of the final report and its summary [402] Preparation and submission of the report of the survey </p><p>5. Outline of the Project Area (1) Natural Environment </p><p>The Project area is Freetown Metropolitan Area which is located in Western Area Peninsular, and consists of Western Urban and Western Rural as shown in Figure 1. The climate of Sierra Leone is tropical. The dry season is from December to April and the rainy season is from May to November. The average annual temperature is around 25 to 30 degree centigrade in the dry season and 22 to 27 degree centigrade in the rainy season. The average annual rainfall is around 3,000 to 7,000 mm/year and the humidity is around 45 to 80 percent. There is still beautiful nature in Western Area, such as forests, beaches, ocean, and wetlands (mangrove forests). </p><p>Sierra Leone is rich in terms of biodiversity, both flora and fauna. But lack of intensive and comprehensive surveys especially after 90s makes it difficult to grasp the current status of biodiversity. In addition, the eleven-year civil war degraded its rich biodiversity by clearing forests and eating bush meats. In the 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (hereinafter referred to as IUCN) Red List, 1,051 species are categorized as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threaded, Data Deficient, and Least Concerned in Sierra Leone. Out of 1,051 species, 94 species are categorized as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable. The number of animal species is 47 and plant species is 47. </p><p>There are two protected areas in Western Area. One is a part of Sierra Leone River Estuary (the total area is around 300,000ha), which is one of the wetlands in the list of Ramsar Convention. The other one is rainforest, Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserve (hereinafter </p><p> 4</p></li><li><p> 5</p><p>referred to as WAPF), located in the center of the peninsular. In addition, there is an unprotected wetland called Yawri Bay area in the south of the peninsular. The area is under process to be a national protected area and to be a registered site of the Ramsar Convention. </p><p>WAPF is protected area by national law in order to protect the water catchments and various biodiversity. However, a part of forests have already been extinct because the population has been increased after the civil war, and residents around WAPF have used forests and lands for livelihood. In Figure 3, the areas in orange show the already extinct parts and the area in yellow show the actual stretch of the forest. According to 2008 IUCN Red List and past surveys, there are several animals which are believed to have their habitat in WAPF. As the original boundary of WAPF by law has been disregarded, the Government of Sierra Leone is now trying to re-demarcate WAPF to protect the forest (its catchments and biodiversity), considering the current condition of degradation and local peoples dependence on the forest. </p></li><li><p>*Note: Route of distribution lines are tentative as of December 2010*Note: Route of distribution lines are tentative as of December 2010</p><p>6 </p><p>Figure 1 Project Area </p></li><li><p> [Remarks] Note The red lines show the existing roads. [Source] DACO / SLIS </p><p>Figure 2 Western Area Peninsula Forest Reserve </p><p> 7</p></li><li><p> [Remarks] Note The red lines show the existing roads. [Source] DACO / SLIS </p><p>Figure 3 Map of protected areas in Western Area (2) Social Environment </p><p>Sierra Leone was suffering from insufficient provision of social and public services and deterioration of economy due to power game and corruption after the independence in 1961. The civil war started in 1991 made the situation worse. Since the end of war in 2002, peace has been kept with donors supports. The country is now in the stage of development after the reconstruction stage. However, basic infrastructure such as water, electricity, road are not yet developed enough even in the capital, Freetown, which is a negative factor for economic development. The lack of social services such as education or health makes the lives of people more difficult. The employment rate and poverty rate is high. The country is ranked at 158 among 169 countries in the Human Development Index and categorized as Low Human Development reoffered to as the Human Development Report 2010 by UNDP </p><p>The size of population is becoming bigger and bigger in Western Area, as refugees or internally displaced persons during the war have been moving in, and people from rural areas have also migrated to seek a better life. The population of Western Area is 950,000 according to the statistics in 2004 (urban 785,000 and rural 165,000).This growth of population has caused heavy congestion in Freetown. Especially, the poor have encroached along bay or river or hilltop areas informally. These kinds of slums with no proper infrastructure and sanitation are scattered in the town. Of them, slums in Kroo Bay, Susans Bay, Granville Brook, Cline Bay near Fisher Lane and Wellington Creek are big. </p><p>GDP (constant price) which was falling during the civil war, marked a positive growth </p><p> 8</p></li><li><p>rate after the end of war, and returned to the pre-war level in 2007 (Figure 4). From 2004 to 2006, the annual GDP growth rate was steady with an average figure of 7.4% and the GDP in 2007 was almost restored to the level before the civil war. According to the IMF, the GDP growth rate of Sierra Leone in 2008 slightly fell to 5.5% reflected the world economic deterioration (Figure 5). Figure 6 shows the breakdown of the GDP by sector and Table 1 shows the degree of contribution of each sector to the GDP growth from 2005 to 2007. During this period, agriculture and services accounted for some 70 to 90% of the GDP growth, clearly indicating that the economic growth of Sierra Leone in the post-civil war period was led by agriculture and services. </p><p>0</p><p>500</p><p>1,000</p><p>1,500</p><p>2,000</p><p>2,500</p><p>3,000</p><p>3,500</p><p>1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005</p><p>Year</p><p>civil war</p><p>Rea</p><p>l GD</p><p>P (b</p><p>illio</p><p>ne L</p><p>eone</p><p>)</p><p> [Source] IMF (2009, 4), World Economic Outlook Database </p><p>Figure 4 Historical Changes of GDP </p><p>-30</p><p>-20</p><p>-10</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005</p><p>Year</p><p>civil war</p><p>GD</p><p>P G</p><p>row</p><p>th R</p><p>ate </p><p>(%)</p><p> [Source] IMF (2009, 4), World Economic Outlook Database </p><p>Figure 4 Historical Changes of GDP Growth Rate </p><p> 9</p></li><li><p> [Source] IMF (2008.7), Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - Progress Report </p><p>Figure 5 Breakdown of GDP by Sector </p><p>Table 1 Contribution Ratio to GDP Growth by Sector 2005 2006 2007 (Estimate) Agriculture 72.1% 37.4% 41.2% Services 26.0% 57.7% 33.0% Mining -3.4% 0.2% 17.2% Manufacturing 1.1% 4.2% 1.0% Electricity &amp; Water -1.0% -0.3% -0.9% Construction 5.1% 0.8% 8.5% </p><p>[Source] IMF (2008.7), Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - Progress Report </p><p>The size of population is becoming bigger and bigger in Western Area, as refugees or internally displaced persons during the war have been moving in, and people from rural areas have also migrated to seek a better life. The population of Western Area is 950,000 according to the statistics in 2004 (urban 785,000 and rural 165,000).This growth of population has caused heavy congestion in...</p></li></ul>