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  • Environmental and Social Considerations of Preparatory Survey for Grant Aid Cooperation Project

    29th November, 2010

    1. Title of the Cooperation Project The Project for the Urgent Improvement of Power Distribution System in Freetown in the

    Republic of Sierra Leone

    2. Type of the Study Preparatory Survey for Grant Aid Cooperation Project

    3. Categorization and its Reason (1) Categorization

    Category B

    (2) Reason for Categorization Impacts on the natural and social environment by this Project are not likely to be

    significant. However several adverse impacts on the environment and society, which are a small scale resettlement and impact on a forest reserve, and other impacts during the construction (temporal traffic control and interruption of power service, air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, waste, noise and vibration, and accidents) will be need to be reviewed in advance in order to avoid and minimize such impacts.

    4. Outline of the Project (1) Background

    The Republic of Sierra Leone (hereinafter referred to as Sierra Leone) is located in the western part of the African continent facing the Atlantic and has a population of 5.32 million (general election statistics in 2007) and a total land area of some 70,000 km2 (similar to the size of Hokkaido Island of Japan).

    The civil war in Sierra Leone ended in 2002 after approximately 11 years of fighting and its recent progress to a development period from the post-war reconstruction period is illustrated by an annual GDP growth rate of 7%. According to this development, the electricity demand, especially in Freetown Metropolitan Area (Western Area), has increased and the electricity demand of Freetown city is estimated as 41MW. However, existing power supply has not satisfied the demand with a high systematical loss caused by the existing overage distribution facility. In order to improve these circumstances, the Government of Japan has been providing

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  • assistance, such as the construction of power generation facility (diesel, 10MW), stretch of distribution lines and construction of substation through Japanese Grant Aid cooperation. Also other donors assistance, such as construction of hydro-power generation facility supported by the World Band, has been provided. The situation of power supply in Freetown Metropolitan Area tends to be improved, however, a high loss of distribution still continues because distribution facility has not meet with the expanded power generation facility. As a result, the final consumers have not received the sufficient and stable electricity.

    Against this background, the Government of Sierra Leone made a request to the Government of Japan for Grant Aid Cooperation Project including construction of a new substation and stretch of distribution lines in the areas with likely high demand in order to promote electrification in these areas.

    (2) Responsible and Implementing Organization The responsible ministry is the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources (hereinafter

    referred to as MEWR) and the implementing organization is the National Power Authority hereinafter referred to as NPA).

    (3) Necessity and Justification of the Project As shown in the following points, necessity and relevance of this Project are high because

    of the direct and indirect effects by implementing the Project;

    1) Beneficiary Population Implementation of this Project will reduce the loss of distribution caused by the overage

    and damaged facility, increase the power supply, and enable to distribute more stable electricity in the target area, Freetown Metropolitan Area. The direct and indirect beneficiary is about 1.83 million people living in Freetown Metropolitan Area. The areas, where the electricity distribution will be improved, include not only the general houses, but also public facilities such as teachers college, hospital, church/mosque, and fishing port.

    2) Purpose and Urgency of the Project Overall goal of this Project is to supply stable electricity in Freetown, and the Project

    purpose is to improve the network of distribution lines in Freetown, to increase the capacity of distribution and to reduce the loss of distribution. Under the circumstance that existing poor distribution facility has not match with the demands and its improvement is greatly required, the newly construction of Goderich substation (hereinafter referred to as S/S), and installation of 33kV and 11kV lines in this Project are quite important in order to improve the electric supply

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  • situation urgently and to be one of the way for securing capital functions.

    3) Compatibility with Master Plan This Project is one of the suggested plans from the Master Plan Study on Power Supply

    in Western Area in the Republic of Sierra Leone implemented by JICA in order to strength the transmission and distribution network based on the demand estimation. And the synergy effects are expected among this Project, existing projects assisted by the Government of Japan with the cooperation of other donors, and the new technical cooperation project of the capacity development for operation and maintenance of electrical supply facility. Therefore, the implementation of this Project is meaningful as one of the program cooperation.

    4) Possibility of Realization under Japans Grant Aid Scheme It is expected to extend and improve the distribution network, and to contribute the safety life of people and the development of social welfare and economic activity in Freetown Metropolitan Area. Therefore it can be reasonable to implement the Project under Japans Grant Aid Scheme. And there are not any issues on the responsible and implementing organizations because MEWR and NPA have experiences of Japans Grant Aid projects.

    (4) Requested Items The requested items are as follows;

    Construction of 33/11kV Goderich S/S Installation of 33kV distribution lines from Wilberforce S/S to Goderich S/S Rehabilitation of 11kV distribution lines Material supply of low voltage distribution equipment and materials

    (5) Contents of the Survey The Survey has the following works;

    000Preparation of the Survey in Japan [001] Analysis of application documents from the Government of Sierra Leone and related documents,

    and understanding the outline [002] Examination of the survey method and the indicators for estimation of the effects by the Projects [003] Examination of the survey policy, method and schedule, and preparation of the draft cooperation

    plan [004] Preparation of the inception report, questionnaire and the survey schedule 100First Field Survey [101] Discussion on the inception report [102] Confirmation of the Project background, purpose, contents, Master Plan and compatibility with

    Master Plan [103] Survey on other donors activities [104] Explanation of Japans Grant Aid scheme [105] Survey on operation and maintenance system

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  • [106] Site survey [107] Survey for facility planning [108] Survey on materials for the Project [109] Survey for construction and installation planning [110] Survey for environmental and social considerations [111] Survey for procurement planning [112] Preparation of the outline design and implementation schedule [113] Discussion of the undertakings by the Sierra Leonean side [114] Preparation of the projects of phase II and phase III according to the Master Plan [115] Discussion on the field report 200Analysis in Japan [201] Explanation of the outline of the first field survey results [202] Preparation of the contents of the Project [203] Examination of the cost reduction based on the outline design [204] Estimation of the reduction of global warming effect [205] Cost comparison with the other donors projects 300Preparation of the Draft Final Report [301] Discussion on the draft final report with the Sierra Leonean side 400Preparation of the Final Report and other documents [401] Preparation and submission of the final report and its summary [402] Preparation and submission of the report of the survey

    5. Outline of the Project Area (1) Natural Environment

    The Project area is Freetown Metropolitan Area which is located in Western Area Peninsular, and consists of Western Urban and Western Rural as shown in Figure 1. The climate of Sierra Leone is tropical. The dry season is from December to April and the rainy season is from May to November. The average annual temperature is around 25 to 30 degree centigrade in the dry season and 22 to 27 degree centigrade in the rainy season. The average annual rainfall is around 3,000 to 7,000 mm/year and the humidity is around 45 to 80 percent. There is still beautiful nature in Western Area, such as forests, beaches, ocean, and wetlands (mangrove forests).

    Sierra Leone is rich in terms of biodiversity, both flora and fauna. But lack of intensive and comprehensive surveys especially after 90s makes it difficult to grasp the current status of biodiversity. In addition, the eleven-year civil war degraded its rich biodiversity by clearing forests and eating bush meats. In the 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (hereinafter referred to as IUCN) Red List, 1,051 species are categorized as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threaded, Data Deficient, and Least Concerned in Sierra Leone. Out of 1,051 species, 94 species are categorized as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable. The number of animal species is 47 and plant species is 47.

    There are two protected areas in Western Area. One is a part of Sierra Leone River Estuary (the total area is around 300,000ha), which is one of the wetlands in the list of Ramsar Convention. The other one is rainforest, Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserve (hereinafter

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    referred to as WAPF), located in the center of the peninsular. In addition, there is an unprotected wetland called Yawri Bay area in the south of the peninsular. The area is under process to be a national protected area and to be a registered site of the Ramsar Convention.

    WAPF is protected area by national law in order to protect the water catchments and various biodiversity. However, a part of forests have already been extinct because the population has been increased after the civil war, and residents around WAPF have used forests and lands for livelihood. In Figure 3, the areas in orange show the already extinct parts and the area in yellow show the actual stretch of the forest. According to 2008 IUCN Red List and past surveys, there are several animals which are believed to have their habitat in WAPF. As the original boundary of WAPF by law has been disregarded, the Government of Sierra Leone is now trying to re-demarcate WAPF to protect the forest (its catchments and biodiversity), considering the current condition of degradation and local peoples dependence on the forest.

  • *Note: Route of distribution lines are tentative as of December 2010*Note: Route of distribution lines are tentative as of December 2010

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    Figure 1 Project Area

  • [Remarks] Note The red lines show the existing roads. [Source] DACO / SLIS

    Figure 2 Western Area Peninsula Forest Reserve

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  • [Remarks] Note The red lines show the existing roads. [Source] DACO / SLIS

    Figure 3 Map of protected areas in Western Area (2) Social Environment

    Sierra Leone was suffering from insufficient provision of social and public services and deterioration of economy due to power game and corruption after the independence in 1961. The civil war started in 1991 made the situation worse. Since the end of war in 2002, peace has been kept with donors supports. The country is now in the stage of development after the reconstruction stage. However, basic infrastructure such as water, electricity, road are not yet developed enough even in the capital, Freetown, which is a negative factor for economic development. The lack of social services such as education or health makes the lives of people more difficult. The employment rate and poverty rate is high. The country is ranked at 158 among 169 countries in the Human Development Index and categorized as Low Human Development reoffered to as the Human Development Report 2010 by UNDP

    The size of population is becoming bigger and bigger in Western Area, as refugees or internally displaced persons during the war have been moving in, and people from rural areas have also migrated to seek a better life. The population of Western Area is 950,000 according to the statistics in 2004 (urban 785,000 and rural 165,000).This growth of population has caused heavy congestion in Freetown. Especially, the poor have encroached along bay or river or hilltop areas informally. These kinds of slums with no proper infrastructure and sanitation are scattered in the town. Of them, slums in Kroo Bay, Susans Bay, Granville Brook, Cline Bay near Fisher Lane and Wellington Creek are big.

    GDP (constant price) which was falling during the civil war, marked a positive growth

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  • rate after the end of war, and returned to the pre-war level in 2007 (Figure 4). From 2004 to 2006, the annual GDP growth rate was steady with an average figure of 7.4% and the GDP in 2007 was almost restored to the level before the civil war. According to the IMF, the GDP growth rate of Sierra Leone in 2008 slightly fell to 5.5% reflected the world economic deterioration (Figure 5). Figure 6 shows the breakdown of the GDP by sector and Table 1 shows the degree of contribution of each sector to the GDP growth from 2005 to 2007. During this period, agriculture and services accounted for some 70 to 90% of the GDP growth, clearly indicating that the economic growth of Sierra Leone in the post-civil war period was led by agriculture and services.

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

    Year

    civil war

    Rea

    l GD

    P (b

    illio

    ne L

    eone

    )

    [Source] IMF (2009, 4), World Economic Outlook Database

    Figure 4 Historical Changes of GDP

    -30

    -20

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

    Year

    civil war

    GD

    P G

    row

    th R

    ate

    (%)

    [Source] IMF (2009, 4), World Economic Outlook Database

    Figure 4 Historical Changes of GDP Growth Rate

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  • [Source] IMF (2008.7), Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - Progress Report

    Figure 5 Breakdown of GDP by Sector

    Table 1 Contribution Ratio to GDP Growth by Sector 2005 2006 2007 (Estimate) Agriculture 72.1% 37.4% 41.2% Services 26.0% 57.7% 33.0% Mining -3.4% 0.2% 17.2% Manufacturing 1.1% 4.2% 1.0% Electricity & Water -1.0% -0.3% -0.9% Construction 5.1% 0.8% 8.5%

    [Source] IMF (2008.7), Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - Progress Report

    The size of population is becoming bigger and bigger in Western Area, as refugees or internally displaced persons during the war have been moving in, and people from rural areas have also migrated to seek a better life. The population of Western Area is 950,000 according to the statistics in 2004 (urban 785,000 and rural 165,000).This growth of population has caused heavy congestion in Freetown. Especially, the poor have encroached along bay or river or hilltop areas informally. These kinds of slums with no proper infrastructure and sanitation are scattered in the town. In some cases, housing land has been developed even in Right of Way (hereinafter referred to as ROW) of the roads and WAPF.

    Sierra Leone has two poverty lines. One is the food/extreme poverty line, which is translated to the expenditure of 1,000 Leone per day. The other one is the full poverty line, which is the expenditure of 2,100 Leone per day. Western area is rich compared to the other areas in Sierra Leone. But, poverty still prevails. According to the Annual Statistics Digest 2005/2006, the ratio of people who live under the two poverty lines is 3.2% and 17.1% respectively in Western Urban, and 26.3% and 70.1% respectively in Western Rural. (National average is 14.7% and 54.3% in urban, and 32.8% and 78.9% in rural.)

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  • The employment pattern in Western Area differs vastly from the other areas. While over 60% of the national population depends on Agriculture, only 6.5% in Western area does. 60% of people in Western Area have their jobs in the service sector. From this, it can be said that power demand in Western Area is higher than the other areas.

    6. Legal and Institutional Framework for Environmental and Social Considerations in Sierra Leone (1) Environment Protection Agency

    Environment Protection Agency (hereinafter referred to as EPA) was newly established in December 2008, based on the EPA Act 2008, under the Ministry of Lands, Country Planning and the Environment (hereinafter referred to as MLCPE). EPA is in charge of issuing an Environmental Impact Assessment, (hereinafter referred to as EIA) license as described in the next part. The other roles of EPA are to advise ministries in formulating policies concerning the environment, harmonize the activities of concerned bodies to control pollution and protect the environment, coordinate and monitor the implementation of national environmental policies and so on. The outline of the EPA Act 2008 is shown in Table 2.

    Table 2 Outline of Environment Protection Agency Act 2008 Establishment of the Environment Protection Agency (Section 2-11)

    Establishment of the agency. Establishment of the Board and its members and functions.

    Functions and Management of the Agency (Section 12-22)

    Functions of the Agency, structure and members of the agency, funds and account

    Environmental Impact Assessments ( Section 23-39)

    Requirement and Procedures of EIA.

    Ozone Depleting Substances (Section 40-52)

    Control of the substances

    1) EIA As shown in Table 2, the sections from 23 to 39 of the EPA Act 2008 explain the

    procedures of EIA. The flow of procedures is shown in Figure 7.

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  • Agency Stakeholders

    professional, Government Ministries, NGO, the Public

    Project Implementer

    Submission of an application

    Application for EIA license with project description (FIRST SCHEDULE)

    Environment Protection

    Agency

    [Source] JICA (2009), the Master Plan Study on Power Supply in Western Area in the Republic of Sierra Leone

    Figure 7 Flow of EIA

    Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security, Forestry

    Division

    EIA submission (THIRD SCHEDULE)

    EIA preparation (SECOND SCHEDULE)

    Inform in a written form EIA is not required

    Submit EIA report Circulation to the stakeholders

    Comments received Board Decision whether

    more info is needed

    Prepare additional info

    License is issued

    Reject EIA No license is issued

    Decision of EIA requirement

    in 14 days

    Non-Forestry

    Forestry

    No EIA

    EIA required

    If Yes

    Board Decision for a

    license

    Submission

    Yes

    No

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  • Any person who will undertake a project under the First Schedule of EPA Act 2008, which is a list of projects requiring EIA licenses, needs to apply for EIA license to EPA before the commencement of a project.

    Table 3 First Schedule (Project Requiring EIA Licenses) (a) substantial changes in renewable resource use (e.g. conversion of land to agricultural production,

    forestry or to pasture land, rural development, timber production) (b) substantial changes in farming and fisheries practices(e.g. introduction of new crops, large scale

    mechanization or use of chemicals in agriculture) (c) exploitation of hydraulic resources(e.g. dams, drainage and irrigation project, water basin

    development, water supply) (d) infrastructure(e.g. roads, bridges, airports, harbors, transmission lines, pipelines, railways) (e) industrial activities(e.g. metallurgical plants, wood processing plants, chemical plants, power plants,

    refinery and petrol-chemical plants, agro-industries) (f) extractive industries(e.g. mining quarrying extraction of sand, gravel, salt, peat, oil and gas) (g) waste management and disposal (e.g. sewerage systems and treatment plants, landfills, treatment

    plants for household and hazardous waste) (h) housing construction and development schemes (i) establishment of places of entertainment, motor repair garages and welding shops (j) importation of second hand vehicles

    An implementation agency of a project under the First Schedule needs to send an application and a description of the project to EPA. EPA decides whether EIA is required in fourteen days after receiving an application. The Second Schedule of EPA Act 2008 indicates factors for determining whether a project requires EIA as follows; (a) the environment impact on the community (b) the location of the project (c) whether the project transforms the locality (d) whether the project has or is likely to have substantial impact on the ecosystem of the locality (e) whether the project results in the diminution of the aesthetic, recreational, scientific, historical,

    cultural or other environmental quality of the locality (f) whether the project will endanger any species of flora or fauna or the habitat of the flora and fauna (g) the scale of the project (h) the extent of the degradation of the quality of the environment (i) whether the project will results in an increase in demand for natural resources in the locality (j) the cumulative impact of the project together with other activities or projects on the environment

    If EIA is not required, the Executive Director of EPA informs the applicant in a written form. When an applicant is required to submit EIA, the applicant needs to prepare and submit EIA including the information set out in the Third Schedule of EPA Act 2008 to EPA. Third Schedule is as follows; (a) the location of the project and its surroundings (b) the principle, concept and purpose of the project (c) the direct or indirect effects that the project is likely to have on the environment (d) the social, economic and cultural effect that the project is likely to have on people and society (e) the communities, interested parties and Government ministries consulted (f) any actions or measures which may avoid, prevent, change, mitigate or remedy the likely effect on

    people and society

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  • (g) any alternatives to the proposed project (h) natural resources in the locality to be used in the project (i) the plans for decommissioning of the project (j) such other information as may be necessary for a proper review of the potential environmental

    impact of the project

    EPA circulates a received EIA to professional bodies or associations, Government Ministries and NGOs for their comments. In addition, EPA makes the EIA open to the public for their comments and inspection in Gazette or newspaper. After receiving the comments, the EIA is submitted to the Board. The Board consists of the representatives of the following 10 agencies including MLCPE. 1) MLCPE 2) Ministry of Local Government 3) Ministry of Mineral Resources 4) Ministry of Marine Resources 5) Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security 6) Ministry of Tourism and Cultural Affairs 7) Ministry of Trade and Industry 8) Ministry of Transport 9) Ministry of Health 10) Petroleum Unit

    Then, the Board decides whether a) to issues a license b) to require additional information to the applicant in 21 days, or c) to reject the EIA which has adverse impacts on the environment, people and society.

    When the EIA has been approved, the Board directs the Executive Director of EPA to issue a license to the applicant. EPA will monitor all projects which licenses have been issued to assess the effects on the environment.

    2) Other related regulations and standards Since there are no national environmental regulations or standards, Sierra Leone uses the

    regulations or standards of international organizations such as WHO (water, air) and World Bank, or other countries.

    (2) Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security (hereinafter referred to as MAFFS)

    is in charge of management and protection of forests and wildlife. Related regulations are Forest Act 1988, Forest Regulation 1988 and Wildlife Conservation Act 1972 (amended in 1990).

    According to the Forestry Act, a chief conservator compiles a national inventory of the forest resource s, and prepares a management plan based on the inventory for each forest. Nobody is allowed to cut down tree, construct structure, cultivate and mine in protected forests without authorization.

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  • According to the Wildlife Conservation Act, there are five categorization for protection areas; National Park, Strict Nature Reserve, Game Reserve and Game Sanctuary and Forest Reserve. This act stipulates protection of forest, fish, animals and plants.

    (3) Legal Framework for Land Acquisition and Compensation 1) Land Tenure System

    There are two land tenure systems in Sierra Leone. One is the customary land tenure system, which is controlled by paramount chiefs, who are traditional rulers in Sierra Leone, and land is owned by communities, families and individuals. This is practiced in provinces outside Western Area. The other one is the modern freehold land tenure system governed by law and practiced in Western Area. Land in Western Area is either state land or private land, and it can be sold, purchased or leased. Therefore, the procedures of land acquisition and the way how to compensate land differ between in Western Area and the other provinces.

    2) Land Acquisition and Compensation a) Public Lands Act (Public Lands Ordinance 1961)

    According to the Compulsory Acquisition of Property Act (Constitutional Safeguards), 1961, it is possible to acquire land compulsorily for public interest, but the government should compensate for the land acquired at the market value and other assets. However, the Public Lands Act (the Public Lands Ordinance 1961) is applied in Western Area. The Act stipulates that land can be acquired by agreement or compulsory for public work, and how to compensate the taken land and damages incurred to owners, occupiers and other persons who have interest in the land. The act also provides settlement of disputes, judicial procedures and grievance procedures. Section 18 of the Act explains the matters which should be considered in determining the amount of compensation as follows.

    i) The market value of the land ii) Increase in the value of land likely to accrue from the use to which the land acquired

    will be put (e.g. increase the value of land due to the electrification) iii) Damage incurred by the people who possess the land by separating the land from

    his/her other land (e.g. decrease of income due to the decrease of agricultural land) iv) Damage to other property and his/her actual earnings when the land is taken n) Expense if the person is forced to change his residence and place of business (mainly

    the damage by the relocation of buildings, such as shops) In both cases of monetary and physical compensation, the value is estimated basically by the section 18 of the Public Lands Act, however, it is determined by the direct negotiation between implementation agency and affected people. Therefore, people who do not have land owner

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  • licenses under the law of Sierra Leone could receive compensation in some cases. For public projects, MLCPE prepares a land for the project site and evaluates the amount of compensation. In case of physical compensation, MLCPE prepares an alternative land and necessary documents for affected people. In case of monetary compensation, the project implementation agency negotiates with affected people in cooperation with MLCPE.

    b) National Power Authority Act National Power Authority Act, 1982 (hereinafter referred to as NAP Act) explains the

    two cases for Western area and the provinces. According to the section 40 (1) (a) of NPA Act, if the authority cannot acquire land by private treaty or agreement in Western Area, land can be obtained for public use in a compulsory manner in accordance with the Public Lands Act. Section 33 of NPA Act provides that when any trees or structures interfere the supply line, a Magistrate can order it to be removed only if appropriate compensation is paid to the owners. Section 42 of NPA Act explains that if NPA thinks it is necessary, NPA may lay supply line at any height along, across and under any streets or roads, erect such as posts and poles in or on streets and roads, and sometimes break up any streets and roads in previous consultation with concerned ministries.

    4) Other Related Organization The other related organizations, which are members of the Board of EPA, and their roles

    are as follows; Ministry of Local Government: Supervision of decentralization Ministry of Mineral Resources: Management of mineral resources Ministry of Marine Resources: Management of marine resources Ministry of Tourism: Management of cultural and historical heritage. Ministry of Trade and Industry: Management of trade and industry Ministry of Transport: Use of roads Ministry of Health: Consideration of impact on health

    In addition to the above organizations, Ministry of Finance & Economic Development is in charge of national finance and development, and Freetown City Council is in charge of environmental monitoring in its jurisdiction area.

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    7. Adverse Environmental and Social Impacts (Scoping Plan) Table 4 shows the adverse environmental and social impact at each stage of the Project

    estimated at the beginning of the preparatory survey. Unknown extent of impact is related to local economy and livelihood and flora, fauna and biodiversity, which are depends on the route of distribution lines. And the unknown extent of impact related to topography and geographical features is caused by the lack of existing data. In the preparatory survey, information, such as the existing measurements and results against these issues, will be collected to clarify these extents of impacts.

  • Table 4 Estimated Adverse Environmental and Social Impacts (as of the beginning of preparatory survey) 1. Preparation and Construction Period

    Item Rating Reasons 1 Involuntary Resettlement

    B

    A small scale involuntary resettlement (estimated as 3 houses) will be caused in the planned site of Goderich S/S. There is a possibility that a part of poles will be installed in the private lands. It is necessary that NPA will explain the description of the Project and obtain agreements with the affected private land owners prior to the Project. Also a part of distribution lines might pass over the crowded area. It is necessary that the safety clearances limit (heights and distances between the distribution line facility and the houses).

    2 Local Economy such as Employment and Livelihood, etc C

    There is a possibility to make some arrangements for impacts on local economy since several small shops are on the sides of existing roads in Freetown.

    3 Land Use and Utilization of Local Resources D

    There is no possibility since the site of Goderich S/S will be the Government site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads.

    4 Social Institutions such as Social Infrastructure and Local Decision making Institutions

    D There is no possibility since the site of Goderich S/S will be the Government site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads.

    5 Existing Social Infrastructures and Services B

    During the installation of distribution lines, temporal traffic restriction and interruption of power service are necessary.

    6 The Poor, Indigenous and Ethnic people D

    There is no possibility since the site of Goderich S/S will be the Government site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads.

    7 Misdistribution of Benefit and Damage D There is no possibility since the site of Goderich S/S will be the Government site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads. 8 Cultural heritage D There are not any cultural heritages in the site. 9 Local Conflicts of Interest D There is no possibility of local conflicts of interest

    10 Water Usage or Water Rights and Communal Rights D

    There is no possibility since the site of Goderich S/S will be the Government site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads.

    11 Sanitation D Since the Project will provide a temporal toilet and manage wastes appropriately for the increase of workers, there is no possibility to affect on sanitation.

    Soci

    al E

    nviro

    nmen

    t

    12 Hazards (risk) and Infectious Diseases such as HIV/AIDS D

    There is no possibility of hazards and infectious diseases.

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  • 13 Topography and Geographical Features C

    It is necessary to confirm topography and geographical features by topographical and boring surveys because there is a limited available topography and geographical data about the planned site for Goderich S/S.

    14 Soil Erosion D There is no possibility of soil erosion. 15 Groundwater D There is no possibility of impact on groundwater. 16 Hydrological Situation D There is no possibility of impact on hydrological situation. 17 Coastal zone D There is no possibility of impact on coastal zone. 18 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity C There is a possibility of impact on biodiversity if the routes of distribution lines across the forest reserve. 19 Meteorology D There is no possibility of impact on meteorology. 20 Landscape D There is no possibility since Goderich S/S will be designed with consideration of the landscape and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads.

    Nat

    ural

    Env

    ironm

    ent

    21 Global Warming D There will be not adversely impact on global warming since the green house gas will be reduced by the improvement of the distribution efficiency. 22 Air Pollution B A small scale of air pollutants can be discharged by vehicles during construction. 23 Water Pollution B There is a possibility of murky waters by the construction. 24 Soil Contamination B There is a possibility of oil leaks from the transformers in the Goderich S/S. It is necessary to install oil retaining bands, oil separator or oil pits around transformers. 25 Waste

    B There is a possibility that PCB is used for the old transformers. It is necessary to examine the appropriate treatment method and to investigate the present situation and related regulation for construction wastes to be generated.

    26 Noise and Vibration B

    Since the Project will have a possibility of noise and vibration, it is necessary to provide countermeasure against insulation of noise and vibration, to arrange the working hours of heavy equipment and so on.

    27 Ground Subsidence D There is no possibility of ground subsidence, 28 Offensive Odor D There is no possibility of offensive odor. 29 Bottom Sediment D There is no possibility of impact on bottom sediment.

    Pollu

    tion

    30 Accidents B There is a possibility of electrocution or fires during the installation of distribution facilities, and traffic accidents by vehicles for construction.

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  • 2. Operation Period

    Item Rating Reasons 1 Involuntary Resettlement D Involuntary resettlement is inconceivable in operation period. 2 Local Economy such as

    Employment and Livelihood, etc D Adverse impact is inconceivable since the risk will be reduced by the increase of the electricity supply.

    3 Land Use and Utilization of Local Resources D

    Convenience will be enhanced by the increase of the electricity supply.

    4 Social Institutions such as Social Infrastructure and Local Decision - making Institutions

    D There is no possibility of impact on social institutions in operation period.

    5 Existing Social Infrastructures and Services D

    Safety for existing social infrastructures and services will be increased by the improvement of electricity supply.

    6 The Poor, Indigenous and Ethnic people D

    There is no possibility of impact on the poor, indigenous and ethnic people in operation period.

    7 Misdistribution of Benefit and Damage D

    There is no possibility of misdistribution of benefit and damage since there are no production and commercial activities in the site.

    8 Cultural heritage D There are not any cultural heritages in the site. 9 Local Conflicts of Interest D There is no possibility of local conflicts of interests in operation period.

    10 Water Usage or Water Rights and Communal Rights D

    Since NPA has the right of ownership, there is no possibility of impact on water rights and communal rights

    11 Sanitation D Sanitation will be improved by the increase of the electricity supply.

    Soci

    al E

    nviro

    nmen

    t

    12 Hazards (risk) and Infectious Diseases such as HIV/AIDS D

    There is no possibility of hazards and infectious diseases in operation period.

    13 Topography and Geographical Features D

    There is no possibility of impact on topography and geographical features in operation period.

    14 Soil Erosion D There is no possibility of soil erosion in operation period. 15 Groundwater D There is no possibility to affect groundwater in operation period. 16 Hydrological Situation D There is no possibility to affect hydrological situation in operation period. 17 Coastal zone D There is no possibility to affect coastal zone in operation period. 18 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity C There is a possibility to affect flora, fauna and biodiversity if the routes of the distribution line across the forest reserve. 19 Meteorology D There is no possibility to affect meteorology in operation period. 20 Landscape D There is no possibility to affect landscape in operation period.

    Nat

    ural

    Env

    ironm

    ent

    21 Global Warming D There will be not adversely impact on global warming since the green house gas will be

    20

  • 21

    reduced by the improvement of the efficiency of electricity supply. 22 Air Pollution D There is no possibility of air pollution in operation period. 23 Water Pollution D There is no possibility of water pollution in operation period. 24 Soil Contamination D There is no possibility of soil contamination in operation period. 25 Waste D There is no possibility to generate wastes in operation period. 26 Noise and Vibration D There is no possibility of noise and vibration in operation period. 27 Ground Subsidence D There is no possibility of ground subsidence in operation period. 28 Offensive Odor D There is no possibility to generate offensive odor in operation period. 29 Bottom Sediment D There is no possibility to generate bottom sediment in operation period.

    Pollu

    tion

    30 Accidents D There is no possibility of accidents in operation period. Rating (A: Serious impact is expected, B: Some impact is expected, C: Extent of impact is unknown, D (or No Mark): No impact is expected.

  • 8. Alternatives Among the requested items by the Sierra Leonean side, alternatives for the following

    items are examined in the preparatory survey. Item 1: Construction of 33/11kV Goderich S/S Item 2: Installation of 33kV distribution lines from Wilberforce S/S to Goderich S/S Item 3: Rehabilitation of 11kV distribution lines

    (1) Goderich S/S The planned site of Goderich S/S had been used for the radio station of Sierra Leone

    Broadcasting Company (hereinafter referred to as SLBC and not used at present (as of November 2010). In this site, a facility and a radio antenna (steel tower) for the former radio station are confirmed. With consideration of the conditions, such as the possibility of demolishing a facility and a steel tower, there are two options for Item 1 as follows; 1) Without option 2) Planned site: In the site, there is a steel tower, and a small scale involuntary resettlement (one derelict house and two houses) will be caused. During the construction, it is necessary to take some measures for the main water pipe, which is exposed near the site.

    (2) Route of 33kV distribution lines from Wilberforce S/S to Goderich S/S In principal, 33kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads in order to

    avoid unnecessary resettlement, deforestation and serious impact on biodiversity. There are four options for Item 2 as follows; 1) Without option 2) Route suggested by NPA 3) Route suggested by the preparatory survey team based on the site survey 4) Same as 3) and partially using the main road (under the construction as of December 2010) to avoid population congestion areas

    (3) Route of 11kV distribution lines from Goderich S/S There are two options for Item 3; 1) Without option and 2) Route suggested by the

    preparatory survey team based on the site survey. There is a possibility that a part of 11kV distribution line will be across WAPF, however, NPA confirms that the installation is possible only along the existing road in WAPF, based on the hearing survey for MALFS.

    In the preparatory survey, the above options will be examined from the economical and technical (safety, workability, operation and maintenance, etc.) views and environmental and

    22

  • social considerations, such as involuntary resettlement, land acquisition (ownership), etc.

    9. Mitigation Measures Regarding the estimated adverse impact, mitigation measures will be examined. Table 5

    shows the plan of mitigation measures. NPA and the preparatory survey team will have a discussion on these mitigation measures and also environmental monitoring plan during the construction and operation periods in order to implement these mitigation measures and monitoring certainly in the Project.

    Table 5 Plan of Mitigation Measures Mitigation Measures Impacts Planning Stage Construction Stage

    1 Involuntary Resettlement

    To minimize the resettlement, the site of Goderich S/S will be the Governmental site and the 33kV and 11kV distribution lines will be installed along the existing roads. For 33kV distribution line, high poles, towers, cables and other equipment will be used. To avoid unnecessary involuntary resettlement, ROW or the safety clearances limit (heights and distances between the distribution line facility and the houses, which has been adapted in Sierra Leone by the World Bank assisting projects) will be secured.

    Notification on the construction schedule for affected people Preparation of the appropriate construction schedule The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA

    2 Local Economy such as Employment and Livelihood, etc

    To avoid unnecessary involuntary resettlement of small shops, ROW or the safety clearances limit will be secured.

    Notification on the construction schedule for affected people Preparation of the appropriate construction schedule The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA

    5 Existing Social Infrastructures and Services

    To minimize the impact on residents, the appropriate plans for temporal traffic restriction and interruption of power service will be prepared based on the discussion among related organizations.

    Notification on the construction schedule for affected people Preparation of the appropriate construction schedule The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA

    13 Topography and Geographical Features

    The appropriate structure design will be prepared based on the results of topographic and boring surveys.

    The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA

    18 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity

    To avoid interference to Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity, the Project site does not intrude the core protection areas of

    Preparation of the appropriate construction scheduleThe contractor will follow the

    23

  • WAPF. The distribution facility plan will include the measures to avoid collision of birds.

    appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA

    22 Air Pollution The appropriate construction and work schedules will be prepared to minimize the exhaust gas from the construction vehicles.

    Periodical maintenance and inspection of construction equipment and vehicles The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA.

    23 Water Pollution

    The construction plan will include the appropriate drainage treatment facility if necessary.

    The contractor will take the appropriate measure of discharging water under the supervision of NPA.

    24 Soil Contamination

    To avoid oil leaks, the facility plan will include the installation of oil retaining bands, oil separator or oil pits around transformers. And the earth surface will be covered by concrete to avoid penetration of oil to the ground.

    The contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures under the supervision of NPA.

    25 Waste NPA will prepare an appropriate disposal site for construction wastes. NPA will prepare a properly controlled storage for the old transformers as a temporary solution because there is no regulation on PCB disposal or treatment facilities in Sierra Leone at present.

    Generated wastes will be transported with prevention of scattering and dropping to the appropriate disposal place. Generated wastes including PCB will be transported with prevention of scattering and dropping to the appropriate storage. During the construction, the contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures to prevent scattering wastes under the supervision of NPA.

    26 Noise and Vibration

    The construction plan will include the measures to minimize noise and vibration.The construction plan will be examined to use environmental friendly equipment, facility and vehicles.

    Notification on the construction schedule for affected peoplePreparation of the appropriate construction schedulePeriodical maintenance and inspection of construction equipment and vehiclesThe contractor will follow the appropriate construction procedures and the traffic control under the supervision of NPA.

    30 Accidents In the site, safety of surrounding residents will be secured and accident should be prevented. To avoid electrocution or fires caused by distribution facilities, minimal safety clearance between the line and structure will be secured. To enhance safety factors of distribution line will be necessary. The route of construction vehicles will be

    Based on the Safety Rules of NPA, NPA will supervise the Contractor to follow this rule. Preparation of the appropriate construction schedule Periodical maintenance and inspection of construction equipment and vehicles The contractor will follow the appropriate construction

    24

  • examined to minimize the possibility of accidents. The construction plan will be prepared with the consideration of the traffic jam.

    procedures and the traffic control under the supervision of NPA.

    10. Items of Environmental and Social Considerations Study

    It is necessary to collect the latest information about the legal framework related to environmental and social considerations, the actual procedure of EIA license, and so on. Regarding the items assumed to have adverse impacts by the Project, it is required to confirm the actual situation by the field survey and to examine mitigating and minimizing measures and to prepare the monitoring plan in compliance with Environmental and Social Consideration Guideline of JICA. The key items to confirm are shown in Table 6. Necessary information and data will be collected with adjustment by discussions among related agencies.

    Table 6 Items of Environmental and Social Considerations Study

    Item Contents

    Social Environment

    Use of land and local material: rights of project sites, surrounding situation of the sites including the material stock yard and access road

    Resettlement: procedures and existing cases of compensation, contents and schedule of the brief resettlement action plan by NPA

    Transportation: ROW, road development plan Public security around the sites

    National Environment and Pollution

    Regulation on noise, vibration, water pollution and so on. Present level of the topography, geographical and other features. Management and treatment measurements of construction wastes Present level of the topography, geographical and other features. Present situation of WAPF and biodiversity Present treatment of discharge water Mitigation measures for noise, vibration and so on. Measures for safety during and after the construction Treatment measurements of construction wastes Estimation and evaluation of CO2 reduction

    According to EPA Act 2008, EIA license is required for projects of transmission lines,

    therefore, NPA needs to obtain EIA license for this Project. NPA will complete necessary procedures by the end of April 2011, therefore, the preparatory survey team will support NPA for EIA license application. Also the team will support NPA to prepare Environmental Checklist and Monitoring Plan in compliance with Environmental and Social Consideration Guideline of JICA.

    For the smooth implementation of the Project, NPA will arrange and conduct the explanation to the residents and related organizations about the Project, construction schedule and method before the commencement of the Project. The plan of this explanation will be examined by NPA and the preparatory survey team.

    25

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    11. Other related Information Environmental Protection Agency Act, 2008 Forest Act, 1988 Forest Regulation, 1988 Wildlife Conservation Act, 1972 (amended 1990) Compulsory Acquisition of Property Act, 1961 Public Lands Ordinance, 1961 National Power Authority Act, 1982 JICA (2009) Master Plan Study on Power Supply in Western Area in the Republic of Sierra

    Leone

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