environment and urbanization asia 2013 prayoga 57 71

Download Environment and Urbanization Asia 2013 Prayoga 57 71

Post on 22-Jun-2015




0 download

Embed Size (px)


http://eua.sagepub.com/Environment and Urbanization Asiahttp://eua.sagepub.com/content/4/1/57The online version of this article can be found at:DOI: 10.1177/1103308813478606 2013 4: 57 Environment and Urbanization AsiaI Nyoman Tri Prayoga, Landung Esariti and Diah Intan Kusumo DewiThe Identification of Early Gentrification in Tembalang Area, Semarang, IndonesiaPublished by:http://www.sagepublications.comOn behalf of:National Institute of Urban Affairs can be found at: Environment and Urbanization Asia Additional services and information for http://eua.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://eua.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: http://eua.sagepub.com/content/4/1/57.refs.html Citations: What is This?- Jun 26, 2013 Version of Record>> at Universitas Diponegoro PARENT on November 17, 2013 eua.sagepub.com Downloaded from at Universitas Diponegoro PARENT on November 17, 2013 eua.sagepub.com Downloaded from The Identification of Early Gentrification in Tembalang Area, Semarang, IndonesiaI Nyoman Tri Prayoga, Landung Esariti andDiah Intan Kusumo DewiAbstractThe authors study the effect of development in Tembalang post relocation of the Diponegoro University in 1995, and establish that social, economic and physical changes occurring demonstrate establishment of gentrification in the city. The study also assesses the effect of gentrification. The study uses quantitative and qualitative methods, applied on 130 dwellers as sample unit, and utilizes Discriminant Analysis to clas-sify the gentrification characteristic, both using questionnaire and observation. The authors conclude that development in Tembalang demonstrates gentrification that is identified based on social change, changes in population, tendency of segregation, and areas revitalization. Socially, gentrification has made Tembalang become more crowded; differences in dwellers behaviour of home rented-newcomers and homeowner-newcomeranddeclininglevelofmoralityinTembalangsyoutharealsostudied.Economically,effects of gentrification is demonstrated in over 65% population as economic condition have improved due to increaseofbusinessopportunities,rapidgrowthintradeandserviceactivitiesinthemainstreetcor-ridors.Theauthorsalsoshowthatgentrificationleadstoincreasedcongestionandincreasedcriminal activities. Physically, gentrification has decreased available green space although improvement in aesthetics in terms of architecture, cleanliness, and building permanency are observed. Disparity in infrastructure services distribution is also observed on account of gentrification. {^1995Diponegoro{Tembalangl)/))]|,}j,Y|$f5|/3jm}uji,w9/1|j]|,^)]|]j,,130;,|4f()(j|)9I)[(jOY/N)#15|,/J5|,J5Y|L|Tembalang)/W||j|]jmTu|Tembalang5||WT/|||,5,]Tembalang1/]/||w9,TmTd,|#TfT65+f|)(,l[,,]}\%Y5,/|)M,WT/,}j]||||}(/M),|$fmTu,|])G},,=/={|||/,;I@^H1|],!|))wf5/}||j],KeywordsGentrification, neighbourhoods revitalization, settlement, suburbanIntroductionGentrification is a phenomenon of the shifting population of a region to another region and of a pressure toimproveenvironmentalqualityinthelocalarea(Clerval,2006). Though,ithasnotbeenwidely ArticleEnvironment and Urbanization ASIA 4(1) 5771 2013 National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA)SAGE PublicationsLos Angeles, London,New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DCDOI: 10.1177/1103308813478606http://eua.sagepub.com at Universitas Diponegoro PARENT on November 17, 2013 eua.sagepub.com Downloaded from 58I Nyoman Tri Prayoga, Landung Esariti and Diah Intan Kusumo DewiEnvironment and Urbanization ASIA, 4, 1 (2013): 5771investigated in Indonesia, but the term gentrification has been common since the 1970s. Ruth (1963, in Sabri, 2008) defines gentrification as an entry process when an upper secondary population expands into areas inhabited by the lower middle. A similar opinion was expressed by Johnston (1981) that gentrifica-tion is a slum take-over process by people who are more capable and transform the region into areas of higher value and cause changes in social status. This opinion is supported by Webster (in Sabri, 2008) that, gentrification is an improvement process that accompanies the entry area of the upper middle to a deteriorated region and often causes the release of poorer residents. Gentrification is still a controversial case seen from the positive and negative impacts. It is argued that gentrification can occur naturally or self-related processes that occur naturally in the community, but gentrification may also occur as a delib-erate political measure or regulation of the government to improve the quality of an area.Furthermore, Warde (in Smith, 2002) also pointed out that gentrification is an inhabitant process with richer people replacing the original population, creating new patterns of social segregation. Gentrification creates the transformation of buildings and environments that enhance the aesthetics and function called a region or revitalization. Smith (2002) reconfirmed this based on his research; gentrification is not limited to occur only in the city centres, but the suburbs as well. In addition, Smith stated that the key point of gentrification is the change in the population area. Gentrification may provide benefits on a home or land ownersthroughincreasedpropertyvalues(Smith,1979;Hammel,1999).Followingarethepositive opinions mentioned about an advantage of the gentrification. That gentrification is considered to decrease the concentration of poverty of an area, decrease crime, increase property values, increase public and private investment, develop the retail sector, and increase urban services such as facilities and infrastructure (Berrey, 2005; Duany, 2001; Kasinitz, 1988). On the other hand, it points out that gentrification leads to the housing sector becoming financially difficult to reach, the original inhabitants, the poor, are particularly vulnerable to move forcibly because of the inability to adjust to the increase in neighbourhood value (Lyons, 1996; Robinson, 1995), as well as a change of identity from the environment (Brown-Saracino, 2004).Original residents who have lived long with low economic circumstances are more likely to not sup-port gentrification because they are less able to reach an increase in the value of the lease, property, taxa-tion and regional economic conditions (Bostic and Martin, 2003). However, according to Sullivan (2007), the patterns are not always same in every place as in some cases, if the native people can adapt, they are able to accept the gentrification as it improves their neighbourhood and their welfare condition.The effect of gentrification in the social situation of the area is quite large. Knox stated (1982: 137), that in the process, gentrification will lead to mixing of the activity of the upper class and lower class. Knox (1982) added, in several studies conducted in various places, that there are two possibilities that may occur. In some cases, rejection of the original population of immigrants may occur because of the inability of the newcomers to join the original population. On the other hand, if the invasion of the pres-sure flow of migrants is very large, then it is more than likely, that the original residents will be forced to move out because of a mismatch in view of social change. Price or value of land is also closely related to gentrification. Land price is the value of capital or assets of a unit of land, or the amount actually paid for a legitimate unit of land (Bourne, 1982: 124). Bourne (1982: 126) also argued about the factors that influence the price of land, among others: location advantages, environment, availability of good facili-ties and easy access to work. A linkage with the gentrification of land prices is the tendency of increase inlandpricesintandemwiththegentrificationprocess.Improvementorincreasedqualityofthe environment or the area becoming the most influential factor in the increase of land prices in relation to gentrification (Smith, 1979). In gentrification, the upper middle region gentry consider it their strategy to gain occupancy and property at a price that is cheap and then renovate or convert the type of property at Universitas Diponegoro PARENT on November 17, 2013 eua.sagepub.com Downloaded from The Identification of Early Gentrification 59Environment and Urbanization ASIA, 4, 1 (2013): 5771so that it will be worth more to them (Knox, 1982: 136). Associated with the urban fringe, Bourne (in Knox, 1982: 13839) defined the phenomenon that happens on the outskirts of settlements related to the presence of urban renewal or gentrification. Judging from the physical changes, the dominant dwelling type is single-family or more than one family at a shelter but a small number of family compositions. Physical changes also indicate the level of intensity categorized by construction height. Seeing from the point of social change, population density is generally low but continues to rise, the family structure is dominated by young families who are also affected by high levels of migration. It can be added that areas experiencing gentrification will be dominated by people with higher social status than before. Another change is the number of development projects undertaken in the suburb.The same phenomenon happened in the city of Semarang, more precisely since there was an expansion of Diponegoro University (UNDIP) to adjust to the student capacity and development needs of the future. Initially UNDIP was located near the Central Business District area, relatively small but strategic and acces-sible. Later on, it was moved to the suburbs in the southern city of Semarang, called Tembalang. It caused Tembalang to become an area that had mix-use activities between urban and rural areas that grew fast, physi-cally and economically. This condition is considered as one of the impacts of the existence of Diponegoro University