env2 chim 01

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  • . _ 1 . -1

    . _

    . _

    _

    . _

  • : )qa( D d + )qa( C c = )qa( B b + )qa( A a

    :

    @ > @ >ab@ > @ >

    cd

    A.B QC.D

    4 L / lom

    (. ) :

    .1 2232--462- Iqa 2 SO qa 2 I qa SO qa

    @ > @ > : 2232-2 Q I . SO I . SO @ > @ >

    2-46

    -2

    r .2

    222-3 OCHHqa HO OCH qa HO qa .

    3 2 Q OCH . HO OCHH @ >@ > @ >-2

    r

    .3

    22 IbPs bP qa I2 qa @ > @ > . ( 2IbP )II

    Q bP . I

    2-2r

  • .

    Hp :

    : :

    . - :

    3HCHOOCqa : L/lom 1,0 . OOCHqa aNqa HOOCHqa 3HCOOCqa aNqa

    : V

    .

    1 2 3 3 VHCHOOC Lm 01 Lm 02 Lm 01 VHOOCH Lm 01 Lm 5 Lm 1

    3 VHCaNOOC Lm 01 Lm 1 Lm 01 VaNOOCH Lm 01 Lm 01 Lm 01

    . Hp -1 . / -2 -3

    : AKp

  • AKp 33- HCHOOC qa / HCOOCqa 8,4 - HOOCHqa / OOCHqa 8,3 A 2- HO / OHqa 41

    i,rQ -4 .

    HO 3q@ > AK -5 . Aq@ > HAq@ >

    -6 .33- HCHOOC qa / HCOOCqa

    . -7 . K i,rQ -8 : : Hp -1

    . Hp

    :

    1 2 3 Hp 02,4 07,3 08,4

  • 2 - : :

    aqOH aqCOOCH OH aq COOHCH 3-323 A : aqCOOCH / aq COOHCH -33. :

    aqOH aqHCOO OH aq HCOOH 3-2 A : aqHCOO / aqHCOOH -.

    3- : aqCOOHCH aqHCOO aqCOOCH aq HCOOH 3--3

    > @ > @> @ > @

    10 K

    KK

    COCH . HHCO

    HCO . HCOCHK

    1

    2

    a

    a

    q-23q2

    q-2q23

    4- :

    > @ > @> @ > @i-23i2 i

    -2i23

    i ,r COCH . HHCOHCO . HCOCH

    Q1

    :

    32 4132 41i , r V . V

    V . VV/V . c . V/V . cV/V . c . V/V . cQ

    1

    :1 Q i ,r1 :40 Q i ,r2 10 Q i ,r3 5- : > @

    > @q23q23

    A HCOCH

    COCHlogpKpH

    1

  • @ >2q@ >

    2qOCHH A

    OCHHpKpgol

    2

    : -6@ >

    2q@ >2q

    OCHH

    HCOC HCOCH 32q 32q@ >@ > OCH

    @ >2q@ >

    2q

    OCHH

    OCH

    @ >32q@ >

    32q

    HCOCH

    HCOC

    1 1 1 52,0 5,2

    2 50,0 2 1,0 8,0

    3 1 01 1 01

    : -7 OOCH@ > 3 HCHOOC@ > HOOCH@ > HCOC 32@ > :1

    . :2

    OOCH@ > 3 HCHOOC@ > HOOCH@ > HCOC 32@ > .

    :3 .

    : -8 :1

    . K < i,1rQ

    :2

    . K > i,2rQ r,i Q1 K01

    Qr

  • :3 . K = i,3rQ

    : -2-1

    : - .

    . i,rQ :

    : 232-2-32 OCHH qa HCOC qa OCH qa HCOCH qa

    : Lm 02 = 1V

    Lm 01 = 2V , L / lom 1,0 Lm 1 = 3V , L / lom 1,0 . Lm 5 = 4V , L / lom 1,0 4V + 3V + 2V + 1V = V

    : @ > @ >i 2i32-i@ > @ >

    -32i2

    OCHH . HCOC r , iHCOCH . OCH

    Q1

    34

    12

    34

    12

    V . V r,i V . V

    V . C . V

    VC . V

    V . C . V

    VC . V

    Q

    0415u r,i Q02 01

    u .04 = i , rQ : -3-1

    B A . D C

  • : )qa( D d + )qa( C c = )qa( B b + )qa( A a

    D , C , B , A B A B A D C ) ( D C

    . :

    D d + C c = B b + A a

    . 0 )A(i n )B(i n )C(i n )D(i N x xa - )A(in xb - )B(in xc + )C(in xd + )D(in

    . :

    : K = iQ -1 . Q

    D C K Q K < iQ -2

    ) () B A (.

    .K Q

    B A K Q K > iQ. 3 ( ) () D C

    (. ) .K Q

    Qr,iQr,i

    K

    Qr,iQr,i

    K

    Qr,iQr,i

    K

  • :

    : : -4-1

    B A .D C

    : )qa( D d + )qa( C c = )qa( B b + )qa( A a

    K i, rQ .D C

    :

    )qa( D d + )qa( C c = )qa( B b + )qa( A a

    )qa( B b + )qa( A a = )qa( D d + )qa( C c K i , rQ

    .

    . .K Q

    K .

    . K =i,rQ ) K < i,rQ

    (. ) K > i,rQ

    (.

    ! i QK i QK i QK

  • -2

    : -

    : :

    . :

    ()qa(-2 4OS + )qa(+2uC )

    (.)qa(-24OS + )qa(+2nZ) :

    1-01.0,1 = 1c Lm 02 = 1v L/lom 1-01.0,1 = 2c Lm 02 = 2v L/lom

    . /1 . / / 2 . 7301.2 = K / 3

    . :

    / 1

  • .

    nZ uC )qa(+2uC / 2

    .)qa(+2nZ :

    )s(nZ / )qa(+2nZ )s(uC / )qa(+2uC :

    uCqa nZ s uCs nZ qa

    nZs nZ qa 2 e

    uCqa 2 e uCs

    22

    2-

    2-

    @ >@ > : / 3Q1

    uCnZ

    Q

    i

    i2

    i2

    i

    K < iQ .

    :

    ( ) ()

    .

  • :

    : - :

    -2 4OS + )qa(+2uC ) Lm 05 1 . L / lom 1,0 = C )qa(

    -2 4OS + )qa(+2nZ ) Lm 05 2 . L / lom 1,0 = C )qa(

    U .2 1 (. -3ON + +4HN)

    . -1 -2

    . -3

    : : -1

    : .

    -2

    .

  • :

    .

    :

    +4HN +2nZ +2uC . -3ON +24OS

    -3 :

    (1 ...) 2- nZ s nZ qa 2 e

    : (2 ...) 2- uC qa 2 e uCs

    .

    . (:2 + 1 )

    22 uC qa nZ s uCs nZ qa

  • . . : -

    = 1c Lm 02 = 1v

    .1-L.lom 1-01.0,1

    2c Lm 02 = 2v .1-L.lom 1-01.0,1 = :

    )s(uC / )qa(+2uC 9 .)s(nZ / )qa(+2nZ 9

    (.) U )

    (. 3-ON +K :

    .

    . 01 . / 1 . / 2 / 3

    )6381(

    6381

  • / 4 .

    : A / 1

    MOC )

    ( : / 2 . /3 : / 4

    RAe

    nZ

    2 nZqa nZ2 2e

    uC

    2 uCqa

    uC2 2e

    I

  • .

    uCqa nZ s uCs nZ qa

    uCqa 2 e uCs

    nZs nZ qa 2 e

    22

    2-

    2-

    . nZ +2uC @ >@ > :

    73i

    2i

    2

    i

    QK1,9.01

    1uCQnZ

    .

    .

  • . .tloV ( ecirtomortcel ecroF )mef

    V 80,1 = E = mef: . 38,0 = r

    : -

    . .

    .

    : - .

    : x

    . . x

    . ( )

    . ( ) (. )

    :

    nZuC

    e

    e e

    2OS4

    uC2 nZ2

    I

  • : )

    . ( ./ .M +nM

    1 : -e 1n + 1xO b = 1deR a

    .2 : 2deR d = -e 2n + 2xO c :

    : 2n x ) -e1n + 1xO b = 1deR a (

    1n x ) 2deR d = -e2n + 2xO c (

    2deR 1n.d + 1xO 2n.b = 2xO 1n.c + 1deR 2n.a

  • . K

    . Q .

    + -

    K < iQ o 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 K > iQ m 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 : -

    ( - ) . ( = )

    . ( )

    M / +pM // +nM / M

    1122 ders/xOqa // xOqa/ders

  • : -3

    : -1-3 .

    ( + ) .

    V

    . V :

    : -

    ( 0 = I) (.V) E mef

    mef . /

    (.) r

    I r E = NPU .

    . E r

    ' '

    I .NP rU

    A

    uCs nZs

    2 nZqa