Entomology Update Sugarcane Aphid EPA MP 3 Delusory Parasitosis.

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Entomology UpdateSugarcane AphidEPA MP3Delusory Parasitosis

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Photo: Univ. of FloridaNew Pest of Sorghum in Kentucky : Sugarcane Aphid

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GreenbugDark stripe

Corn leaf aphidDark HeadSCA Identification3

Sap feeder, produces honeydew (harvest issues)

Does not inject a toxin or transmit disease

Reproduce asexually very rapidly, all females

Monitor fields weekly

Also feeds on Johnsongrass, Sudan grass

4Sugarcane AphidPre-boot sorghum can cause grain loss, but during grain development can also reduce yields

Large infestations can stunt growth and result in uneven head emergence from the boot

Sticky leaves and stalks clog combines at harvest and reduce separation of the grain from the plants. Combines may require service time to clean honeydew and remove stalks/grain heads

Infestations in forage sorghums also kill leaves and reduce forage yields

Honeydew contaminating leaves and stems can also gum up cutter bars and machinery at harvest

Black sooty mold growing on honeydew can be used to spot infestations

Sugarcane aphid infestationspresent after head emergence may have less impact on yield5Monitoring for Sugarcane AphidCheck sorghum weeklyTo detect, look at one leaf on each of 50 plantsIf nothing check again in one weekIf present, scout 2x per week and use a threshold of 50 to 125 sugarcane aphids per leaf

6Controlling Sugarcane Aphid with InsecticidesLorsban, dimethoate, and malathion are labeled for aphid control on sorghum, but do not show the same level of control as Sivanto or Transform.

Source: Texas A&MA KY Section 18 for Transform WG was approved for 2015

7Sweet SorghumNot in a crop group and not covered by other sorghum labels. An orphan crop.Only Intrepid labeled for this crop.Near complete losses of sweet sorghum in many counties.IR-4: in progressEmergency Section 18 ?

8New EPA Mandate: MP3Managed Pollinator Protection PlanWhite House: May 19, 2015National Strategy to Promote health of Honey Bees and Other PollinatorsReduce overwintering losses to 225 MEnhance 7 M acres for pollinators in 5 years

9New EPA Mandate: MP3Managed Pollinator Protection PlanEach state to develop a MP3 by 2017North Dakota, Mississippi, Colorado used as modelKentucky Department of Agriculture is the lead agency (Division of Environmental Services/Apiarist)Core group has met 7 times working on a draft plan for KY10

11KY MP3 (Draft)Three partsBMPs for beekeepers, pesticide applicators, landownersCommunication tool used by applicators to alert beekeepers in the areaLists of forage crops which can be used by landowners, government agencies, and utilities to provide quality pollinator forage

12Beekeeper BMPsDocument honey bee colony health with photographic evidence as well as business receipts from current and previous years. Contact your local USDA FSA office regarding the ELAP programRegister hives with the KDA State ApiaristBeekeepers consider a Bee Flag to alert urban neighbors or area farmers

13Beekeeper BMPsMaintain strong healthy colonies using recommended management practices.Plant diverse flowers. Every hive on average needs 252 million flowers.Stay informed about honey bee issues through associations, extension, and FSA.Avoid placing honey bee colonies in direct proximity to agricultural fields

14Beekeeper BMPsHave full-length screens at the ready to drape over hives.Send honey to be tested and see what flowers are actually being represented in the honeys.Be able to recognize colony loss to pesticides and report it.

15Beekeeper BMPsCommunicate with local farmers and notify them of your colony locations.Do not place colonies on private land without permission.Post contact information in a prominent location at each apiary.

Joe and Jane Beekeeper1020 Honey Hill RoadApiarisville, KY 44444

(270) 555 5555pollinator_headquarters@gmail.com16Applicator BMPsBe aware of honey bee colonies near fields to be treated with pesticides. Use IPM and economic thresholds to determine if insecticides are needed.Consider impacts on pollinators when making pesticide recommendations.Always use pesticides according to the labeling.

17Applicator BMPsPesticides highly toxic to pollinators should be applied early in the morning or in the evening when bees are less active. Before 9:00 amAfter 3:00 pmWhen temperature is below 55F

18Applicator BMPsHoney Bee Ultra Toxic InsecticidestolfenpyradApta, Bexar, ToracimidaclopridAdmire, Nuprid, Macho, dinotefuranVenom, Scorpion, Safari, ZylamclothianadinArena, Belay, PonchothiametoxamActara, Flagship, MeridiancyantraniliproleExirel

19Applicator BMPsAvoid pesticide drift. Identify and notify beekeepers in the area (within 2 miles) prior to applying pesticides as required by pesticide labeling.

20Applicator BMPsDocument your efforts to contact beekeepers within 2 miles when applying pesticides with required beekeeper notification. Minimize spraying non-crop areas with insecticides or other pesticides highly toxic to pollinators. Communicate with your local beekeepers.

21Landowner BMPsWork with beekeepers to choose hive locations. Ideal locations for hives will have minimal impact on farming operations but still will allow bees to access forage and water. Communicate with renters about bee issues. Communicate with chemical applicators whose responsibility it is to look for hives, notify neighbors, etc.

22Landowner BMPsPlant bee forage. Plant flowering plants improve bee forage, especially in non-farmable or non-crop areas. Lure bees away from areas being treated with chemicals

23Web-based Communication ToolsDriftwatch, Beecheck, FieldcheckAlerts applicators of nearby beekeepers and sensitive cropsKellySolutionsBeekeepers receive notification of nearby pesticide applications

24Enhancing Pollinator ForageHoney bees, wild bees, monarch butterfliesMonarch way stations/migration corridorsExample seed mixes (native plants)Recommended perennials (native plants)Guidance for DOT, local governments, utility companies

25Kentucky MP3 ProcessPublic Forum January 20th, FrankfortDiscuss BMPsCommunication ToolIncreasing/enhancing pollinator forage1 additional public forumCooperative ExtensionKey role with education

26Delusional Parasitosis/InfestationPsychological condition: Believe parasites, mites or bugs are present in or on their bodies and/or infest their environmentSelf mutilation through scratching or digging to let the bugs outSelf treating themselves or their environment

27Delusional Parasitosis/InfestationCommonalitiesSensation of crawling/itching/biting2x with womenAges 30 to 80No socioeconomic associationUse home remediesCollect samples off self for examinationExtensive descriptions of pest biology/life cycleCommonalitiesNumerous physicians visitsDelusion shared by other family membersNo treatment has been effectiveReal dermatitisNo arthropod involved

28DescriptionsBlack and white, but change colors Jump or flyHave eight little legs and a small suckerHalf moon shape, Moth-like creaturesWaxy looking fuzz ballsGranules about the size of a grain of salt Long hairs that move independentlyTiny white worm with a brown bulb on its headWorm-like coating around the hair root with a black bulb attachedGreenish-grey cigar shaped thingsInfest inanimate objects: automobiles, furniture, clothing, rugsCrawling out of their skin (Hallucinations)

Hinkle, N. 2000. American Entomologist

29Potential Arthropods to Rule OutFleasTicksLiceChiggersMosquitoesBed bugsThripsRat mitesBird mitesMange mitesLace bugs

30DP: Potential CausesKeep an open mind

Personal use factorsEnvironmental factorsphysicalchemicalHealth-related factors

Client many send or bring in numerous samplesSkin scappingsScabsLintTapeClothing Bath water

Delusional Parasitosis/InfestationKerr, S. 2014 Journal of NACAA 32

DP: Personal Use FactorsDetergents, soaps, fabric softenersCosmeticsMedicationsAlcohol/drug abuse: amphetamines, methamphetamine, and cocaine DP: Environmental Factors PhysicalParticles & FibersPaper, Fabric, InsulationLow HumidityTemperature ChangesStatic ElectricityPollen and mold spores

DP: Environmental Factors ChemicalIndoor Air QualitySick Building SyndromeVolatile Organic ChemicalsOff-gases - furniture, wall and floor coveringsSolvents, resins

DP: Health-related FactorsFood allergiesDiseasesPregnancyDiabetes, liver, schizophrenia , dimentia, or kidney disorderStress, anxiety, nerves

Delusory Parasitosis and ExtensionYou may encounter with this conditionYou are able to identify situations where biting arthropods are involvedNot extension professionals responsibility to diagnoseHave a referral plan (physician) for suspected cases37Delusory Parasitosis and ExtensionRecommendationsTry to rule out arthropod causesAsk about pets and nesting animalsShow images of known biting insects for comparisonExplain that some pests are microscopic, but not invisibleRecommend glue boards, water pan traps, or tape to catch biting pestsblood, scabs, skin scrapings, bodily fluids, and stool samples Should only be handled by medical personnelDo not challenge their claims or agree with them just to comfort themDo not use the word bitesAvoid being alone with the clientAvoid having them show you their weltsNever diagnose clients as delusional or in need of psychological help38Mystery Bug IPMBe thorough and competentProvide inspection / identification of samplesBe patient and understandingBe frankBe firm -- as far as you can tell the problem is not due to insects or mitesDon't improviseBe professional and tactful

Mystery Bug IPMBe thorough and competentProvide inspection / identification of samplesBe patient and understandingBe frankBe firm -- as far as you can tell the problem is not due to insects or mitesDon't improviseBe professional and tactfulMystery Bug IPMWhere there are no insectsYou must say soDont use insecticides

Final ThoughtsConclusions you can makeNo arthropods or pests were observed in your samples. Multiple factors can be associated with your discomfort. Although it is best to consider each factor including pests, seek assistance from your primary physician to ease the sensation itself.For issues related to the red welts on your skin, we recommend that you continue to work closely with your doctor to try to determine the cause of the problem. We are not medically trained to do so.Create a standard short and direct response letter that includes the non-finding of an arthropod cause. Do not include criticism of their belief or treatment recommendations. Recommend they consult a physician.42Final ThoughtsIf you determine this is not arthropod related, then this issue is outside the scope of Extension work. An inability to have them accept science-based facts is not a failure on the part of Extension personnel or volunteers.Avoid the tendency to feel frustrated, depressed, or discouraged by the lack of positive outcomes when working with clientele.Examination by a medical professional is the best outcome.43

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