english language arts & reading 1 english language arts module 2: balanced literacy

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English Language Arts & Reading 1 English Language Arts Module 2: Balanced Literacy Slide 2 English Language Arts & Reading 2 ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of young students understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills. Standard II. Phonological and Phonemic Awareness: Teachers of young students understand the components of phonological and phonemic awareness and utilize a variety of approaches to help young students develop this awareness and its relationship to written language. Standard III. Alphabetic Principle: Teachers of young students understand the importance of the alphabetic principle to reading English, know the elements of the alphabetic principle, and provide instruction that helps students understand that printed words consist of graphic representations that relate to the sounds of spoken language in conventional and intentional ways. Slide 3 English Language Arts & Reading 3 ELA Module 2: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard V. Word Analysis and Decoding: Teachers of young students understand the importance of word analysis and decoding to reading and provide many opportunities for students to improve word analysis and decoding abilities. Standard VI. Reading Fluency: Teachers of young students understand the importance of fluency to reading comprehension and provide many opportunities for students to improve reading fluency. Standard VII. Reading Comprehension: Teachers of young students understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach young students strategies for improving comprehension. Standard X. Assessment and Instruction of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principles of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement literacy instruction for young students. Slide 4 English Language Arts & Reading 4 ELA Module 2: Grades 4-8 Educator Standards Standard I. Oral Language: Teachers of students in grades 4-8 understand the importance of oral language, know the developmental processes of oral language, and provide a variety of instructional opportunities for young students to develop listening and speaking skills. Standard III. Word Analysis Skills and Reading Fluency: Teachers understand the importance of word analysis skills (including decoding, blending, structural analysis, sight word vocabulary) and reading fluency and provide many opportunities for students to practice and improve their word analysis skills and reading fluency. Standard IV. Reading Comprehension: Teachers understand the importance of reading for understanding, know the components of comprehension, and teach students strategies for improving their comprehension. Standard VIII. Assessment of Developing Literacy: Teachers understand the basic principals of assessment and use a variety of literacy assessment practices to plan and implement instruction. Slide 5 English Language Arts & Reading 5 ELA Module 2: Grades 8-12 Educator Standards Standard I. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 know how to design and implement instruction that is appropriate for each student, that reflects knowledge of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), that integrates all components of the English language arts (i.e., reading, writing, listening/speaking, viewing/representing), and that is based on continuous assessment. Standard II. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand the processes of reading and teach students to apply these processes. Standard VIII. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand oral communication and provide students with opportunities to develop listening and speaking skills. Slide 6 English Language Arts & Reading 6 Components of Balanced Literacy Oral Language Phonemic and Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle (*Region 4 includes this one, many publications only refer to the other 5 components) Word Study/Literacy Development Reading Fluency Comprehension Slide 7 English Language Arts & Reading 7 Oral Language Slide 8 8 Listening Comprehension Listening and speaking go hand in hand. Good listening skills will produce good speakers. Slide 9 9 Listening Students develop important reading comprehension strategies through listening comprehension. Students develop good oral language skills through activities to promote listening comprehension. Slide 10 10 Listening Comprehension Development Instructional Strategies for Listening Development Reading aloud books, both narrative and expository. Combining listening comprehension activities with expressive oral language activities. Slide 11 11 Differences in Quantity of Words Heard In a typical hour, the average child will probably hear 616 wordsWelfare 1,251 words Working Class 2,153 wordsProfessional Slide 12 12 Quantity and Quality Differences Quantity of words heard in a typical hour Hart,B. & Risley, T. (1995) Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young America Children. Baltimore: Paul H.Brookes. 5 affirmations 11 prohibitions 12 affirmations 7 prohibitions 32 affirmations 5 prohibitions 616 words 1,251 words 2,153 words Welfare Working Professional Quality of words heard in a typical hour Slide 13 13 Importance of Adult-Child Conversations Talking to adults is childrens best source of exposure to new vocabulary and ideas. Starting Out Right, 1999. As a teacher, they are listening to every word you say! MODEL, MODEL, MODEL. Slide 14 14 Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Home literacy is a determining variable in the acquisition of school literacy. Snow, 1983 Slide 15 15 Why is Home Literacy an Important Factor? Early readers typically come from homes in which storybook reading is a frequent event. Clark, 1984; Durkin, 1974/1975 Slide 16 16 Oral Language Development Childs Current Oral Language Development Model extended language Use questions and prompts Recast and expand ideas Request clarification Promote questions and conversation Provide feedback Optimal Oral Language Development Scaffolding to Promote Development Click to climb the scaffold Slide 17 17 Oral Language Development Instructional Strategies to develop Oral Language 1. Circle time experiences 2. Read-aloud sessions 3. Center time 4. Small group or one-to-one instruction Slide 18 18 Circle Time Experiences Sharing time Show and tell News of the day Content-area discussions to build vocabulary Finger-plays Songs, chants, poems, nursery rhymes Slide 19 19 Read-Aloud Sessions Improve vocabulary Build word knowledge Strengthen extended discourse Provide opportunities to explore the sounds, rhythms, and patterns of spoken language Slide 20 20 Read-Aloud Sessions Choose books for read-alouds on a variety of topics. Use appropriate before-reading strategies. Build background knowledge. Pre-teach new words and concepts. Things to Remember Before Reading Aloud Slide 21 21 Read-Aloud Sessions Spend time on traditional tales and nursery rhymes. Be animated. Pause for discussion. Dont always show the illustrations; allow the children to develop visualization skills. Things to Remember During Reading Aloud Slide 22 22 Read-Aloud Sessions Use appropriate after-reading strategies. Discuss both simple (explicit) and complicated (implicit) questions. Repeat read favorite books. Engage in story retelling. Things to Remember After Reading Aloud Slide 23 23 Questions & Responses Simple Explicit Who? What? When? Where? Responses Recall facts, events, and names Focus on information in the text Rephrase text that has just been read Ask Questions After Reading Complex Implicit How? Why? What if? Responses Move away from what can be seen on the page Analyze and elaborate information Focus on thinking about what has been read and prior knowledge (making inferences) Make connections Slide 24 24 Repeated Readings Repeated story readings give children the opportunities to deal with text on a variety of levels. Morrow, 1988 Slide 25 25 Repeated Readings After subsequent readings of the same text, childrens comments and questions increase. Martinez & Rose, 1985 They discuss more aspects of the text and in greater depth. Snow, 1983; Snow & Goldfield, 1983 Slide 26 26 Steps to Successful Story Retells Teacher reads story aloud. Teacher models story retell with props. Children retell with teacher support. Children retell independently. Slide 27 27 Ten Ways to Retell a Story Oral response Puppets Dramatization Pretend-read to a stuffed animal Roll-paper movie Flannel-board Tell it to an adult Tell it on a tape Draw and tell Pretend-read with a friend Slide 28 28 Modes of Assessment for Oral Language Observe children Monitor daily activities Keep anecdotal records Collect samples of work Use checklists Conduct progress monitoring assessments Slide 29 29 Assessment Requires using formal and informal assessments to Determine what children know; Determine what could be understood by the child with more practice and experience; Plan and guide instruction for each child; Provide information for teacher reflection about instructional practices; and Provide information for modification of curriculum, instructional activities, and classroom routines as needed. Slide 30 30 Summary Oral Language is the first step in Reading. Connection between Listening and Speaking Children must learn how to listen and to speak in order to be able to read. VARIATIONS do occur. Slide 31 English Language Arts & Reading 31 Phonemic & Phonological Awareness Slide 32 32 Phonemic & Phonological Awareness PHONICS the SOUNDS that LETTERS make; used to sound out / DECODE what words say Slide 33 33 Phonological Awareness The term refers to a general appreciati

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