Engineering Projects for Electronics and Communication Students

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ENGINEERING PROJECTS FOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION STUDENTS 75rate or flag this pageTweet thisBy vinglb1.Line follower Robot> This robot will follow the black line or it will only move on the black road ,and it will never go out of road.It will stop in case obsticle comes in it's passage. Based on 8051 We have fixed two light sensors on fore side on the robo. The principle of sensors is that black colour will normally observe the light where other colours will normally reflects the lights light source is fixed down ward Ld1 ,a white led reflected light will fall on the ldr if the light is more the resistance of the ldr is normally low and transister remains in cutoff state When the robo moves on the black road , the light reflected is less and the ldr resistance is increasd, vr1 forms a potential driver along with ldr due to increase in resistance the base voltage on t1 will rise to conductionlevel and transister will go into on (conduction)state. Resulting its collector which was getting high logic from the default microcontroller pin will become low. This low logic detection confirms that the robo is on the black road if the robo is our of the black road this logic will become high and it indicates off-road. Depending upon the left or right sensor robo will move towards right or left direction in order to stay on road out put from both the sensors shoul be low when the robo is on the road.... final year projects2.R.F.I.D FOR DIFFERENT APPLICATIONSYou must have seen on discovery channel that the people used to connect a tag to animal and then they used to monitor their location so that they can study their behaviour. With the advancement of technology same rfids are becoming popular, modern rfid consists of a transmitter and a receiver. Transmitter dose not require any power supply it receives it,s power solely from it,s antenna coil attached to it.at I a very small antenna coil and has a very low transmitting range. Transmitter range is within the range of few mm.receiver will have a display device normally a lcd and a data port from where data can be sent to pc. Advanced receivers have Real time clock with enough memory to store the data and later on the data can be transmitted to pc when its memory is full. Most of the commercial available rfid tags and receiver are costly and is not possible by students to develop such devices , even components required are not easily available. Application area: 1 Bus route application. 2 Attendence register 3 Inventry application 4 Security application 5 Rfid can be given to any living or non living thing which need accountabilitry.final year project3.AUTOMATIC INTELLIGENT TOLL -TAXAutomatic toll tax project is designed ,using atmel 89c51 microcontroller & descreate componants. Heart of the project is an ir transmitter and receiver modules ,these strong powerfull modules transmits 38khz strong ir beam, has a range of more than 15 feets are sufficiently enough for our project. I have designed this project as a simple emplementation of the toll collection process automatically in a model form. This should not be considered as a real toll collection system which require much more considerations , tests and huge amount of money, before they are actually put into use. However this project gives enough guidelines for the actual dvelopment of the toll collection system. For the sake of simplicity , we have to make coin box exactly same as used in pco coin box machine fixed on railway station or else whare. We have to make two coin size holes one for one rupee, and other for five rupee coin. You have to fixup coin sensors on these holes, one sensor should be fixed for five rupee coin and one sensor for one rupee coin. OPERATION: when light vehicle is detected, one rupee sensor led will glow also the device will speak out " please enter one rupee" in three languages. if the coin is inserted, it will stop asking for the coin and gate will open. when the vehicle croses other side of the gate the gate will close. also the count value on the lcd will be updated . operation is similar for heavy vehicle where the device is going to ask for "five rupee coin" the project will maintain the complete details of all the vehicles crossing that way.. so no vehicle can cross without paying. final year project HOME/ OFFICE SECURITY SYSTEM (8051 BASED) Security is a matter of great concern to all of us in this world. Normally there are four types of security threat to our property. 1 )Thief, an inturder. 2)Fire, so we use fire sensor. 3)Water spilage /over flow, so we use water sensor. 4) Gas leak , we use gas sensor, whenever there is security breach from one of above or any combination of above. The project takes the following action 1) Sounds an ALARM to attract your or public attention . 2) If the reset sw is not pressed within 30 seconds the projects takes further action, 3) It makes an emergency call to deliver an emergency message stored in speech IC. 4) It will make five attempts to call you before it checks the conditions again. The project presented here is based on world s most powerful intel s mcs-51 family of microcontroller atmel at89c51. CIRCUIT EXPLANATION: This project is based on 8051 microcontroller.(IC2) IC3 and is used as buffer. IC4 is a one time programmable(otp) chip where messages are stored. This is 21 second speech ic where total of 12 messages can be recorded on eight different locations, but total duration should not be more than 21 seconds. Recorded messages can be played back by setting the trigger pin 10 & 11 to high, making these pin low will stop the message, Setting these pin high will repeatedly replay the same message. IC5 is an audio amplifire . Audio output from speech ic(IC4) pin no 7 cout is coupled to this ic on pin no 3 through VR2 volume control and C10. Amplified outputfrom pin no 5 drives the speaker through capacitor C14. R14 and C13 corrects the tone. .C15 and C16 couples the audio message to telephone line. IC4 needs 3.3v operating voltage .R9 is a voltage dropping resistor, D7 is 3.3v zener diode and C7 is a filter capacitor. These components will always maintain the voltage to3.3v at pin 9,12 of IC4. capacitor C8 is a feed back capacitor.,C9 and R13 connected to pin no 7 of IC 4 are tone corrector.R12 along with the VR1 variable resistor performs the sampling rate adjustment. R10 and R11 connected to pin26 and pin 27 of the microcontroller are voltage dropping resistors. R15 and R16 connected to the base of transister Q1 and Q2 are voltage dropping resistors and drives transistors Q1 & Q2 when set to high logic by microcontroller. Q1 Drives the dial relay RL1and Q2 drives the off-hook relay.RL2........................ FINAL YEAR PROJECT4. Pc controlled vehicleIn this project, a vehicle (CAR) is selected and fitted with servo motors to control its motion (gears & stearing controls), a camera is also fitted to capture the front road. Two cell phones are used to communicate between the remote station and the vechile. A digital signal (commands from the controler) are send to the mobile throught the voice channal and the video LIVE is converted into digital and transmitted back to the station through the mobile voice channel. At remote station the digital signal recevied by the mobile ear peice is converted back to video signal and displayed on the screan. Here the remote station might be a LAPTOP, as the laptop can display the LIVE video, the key strokes are converted into digital to steer the vehicle and send it to the destination through the mobile. final year projects5. MICROPROCESSOR BASED RAILWAY SYSTEMThe aim of this project is to demonstrate the incorporation of computer method in railway traffic control to improve, safety, speed of handling the traffic and reliability. Here we employ the microprocessor (Intel 8085) to handle the signaling, track changing and gate operation and to monitoring the traffic. The system starts with the tracking if the train is sensed at the station side or starts with the gate operation (i.e. gate closing and opening) along with the track changing if the train is sensed at the gate side. Once the train arrival is sensed at a distance of about 3 kms the microprocessor performs the gate operation along with the track changing, the identification of the train is done at a distance of 3 kms accordingly the particular operation is performed by the processor. Depending upon the priority of the incoming train, the unengaged track is given for train halting..6.LOCATION BASED ADVERTISINGWhere can we make use of location based advertising ? Definitely it has to be on something that moves. Mobile, yes, but not this time. This about buses. All these buses travel many places, and most of the new ones have got electronic billboards. Why not run location based advertisements on them. The idea is to create a directory of locations (latitude and longitude) and advertisements. An algorithm needs to be developed to find proximity to a location and change the advertisement based on that. Due to the complexity of the project, its better implemented on an embedded linux box. Coupled with GPRS, the advertisements can be updated on the fly, with out even having to stop the vehicle. The different modules of the project include an LED display controller, a GPS module and GPRS handler.7.BLUETOOTH BASED REMOTE CONTROL OF SERVO MOTORDc motors and servo motors are essential components for robotics projects. And most of the robotics projects become really interesting when the projects are wireless also. The most common wireless technology used till now was the FM or RF technology. But there are many disadvantages to using such analoguecommunication technologies. Bluetooth is a short range digital communication protocol suitable for robotic projects. The remote control consists of a receiver and a transmitter. In this case we can use a standard bluetooth module as the receiver. The transmitter may be custom made from a bluetooth module, or a small program can be written on any smart phones with bluetooth capability. J2me and windows mobile are the best for this purpose. Symbian also can be used.8. TALKING RFID ACCESS CONTROLThis is the combination of 2 projects. The RFID access control project and the Text to speech converter project. Both these projects can be done independently and then can be combined together to form this project. The RFID module will detect the RFID cards and will pull up information about the card from a database and provides access or denies it. Usually LEDs or buzzers are used to indicate the status of the access request. In this project instead of LEDs or buzzers we will use a text to speech converter to produce real human voices. When John, who has access shows his RFID card, the system will check the DB and then greet him with a voice message, Hello John, welcome to the office. This is achieved by the main controller of the project sending text information to the text to speech converter. Most of the converters have serial input.9. DIRECT SIGNALLING FOR TRAINSNow a days trains have offline signaling. The train driver will have to look for the signal manually and take an action according to the signal available. If by any chance if he misses a signal that can be very fatal. So if there is a direct signaling mechanism to get the signal inside the train itself then its really useful in saving a lot of lives. The concept is to setup a short range transmitter on every signaling pole so that the train can pick up the signal as it approaches the pole. Any of the commercial wireless communication protocols can be used. Wifi or long range bluetooth becomes the best candidates. The signaling poles can be reached through the railnet optical fibre cables or by using satellite relays.10. WIRELESS LOCAL POSITIONING SYSTEMA local positioning system is similar to a GPS system, but restricted to a specified area, usually a building or a campus. Normally local positioning systems are very accurate. Such positioning systems also use the triangulation method to locate a target. The aim of this project is to create wireless positioning system for a school campus and track various costly assets. The idea is to use a RF positioning where the item under observation will send out a beacon signal periodically. This signal will be picked up by 3 or more strategically placed receivers. The signal strength is used to calculate the distance of the object from the receiver. Getting more than 3 distances and applying it to the distance formule can provide with the exact location of the target.11. GPS BASED VEHICLE TRACKING AND SECURITY SYSTEMGlobal Positioning System, usually called GPS, is the only fully-functional satellite navigation system. A constellation of more than two dozen GPS satellites broadcasts precise timing signals by radio, allowing any GPS receiver (abbreviated to GPSr) to accurately determine its location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) in any weather, day or night, anywhere on Earth.GPS has become a vital global utility, indispensable for modern navigation on land, sea, and air around the world, as well as an important tool for map-making and land surveying. GPS also provides an extremely precise time reference, required for telecommunications and some scientific research, including the study of earthquakes. GPS receivers can also gauge altitude and speed with a very high degree of accuracy. >The United States Department of Defense developed the system, officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System), and launched the first experimental satellite in 1978. The satellite constellation is managed by the 50th Space Wing. Although the cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$400 million per year, including the replacement of aging satellites, GPS is available for free use in civilian applications as a public good. >A GPS reciever placed in a car can recieve signals from these satellites and will calculate the exact location of the car in terms of latitude and longitude. This data can be sent to a server that can monitor the location. A GSM modem can be integrated into this project for providing security and remote control. The current location of the car can be found out by sending an SMS. The car can also be disabled by sending an SMS. >Technologies:>GSM/GPRS, Embedded Systems12. BLUETOOTH CAR LOCK AND IGNITION CONTROLbluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs), also known as IEEE 802.15.1. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras and video game consoles via a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency. Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth technology can be very effectively used for authentication and authorization purposes. Many levels of security are built into Bluetooth technology. We can utilize all of that to provide different levels of security to our car. The car lock control can be hard coded so that it responds to commands received from a single transmitter only. The Bluetooth transmitter is identified by using the hardware address which is unique for each transmitter. Another level of security can be added by using the pass key security in Bluetooth. The user will have to enter a pass code to start the engine ignition. The beauty of using Bluetooth technology lies in the fact that we can use ordinary mobile phones with Bluetooth technology in the place of the transmitter. So in effect the user can control his car doors and ignition from his Bluetooth enabled mobile phone. This technology has got significance since the number of Bluetooth enabled mobile phones are increasing.13. RFID BASED ASSET MANAGEMENTRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. An RFID tag is an object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. Chip-based RFID tags contain silicon chips and antennas. Passive tags require no internal power source, whereas active tags require a power source. An RFID system may consist of several components: tags, tag readers, edge servers, middleware, and application software. >The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a mobile device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of a particular application. The data transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location information, or specifics about the product tagged, such as price, color, date of purchase, etc. The use of RFID in tracking and access applications first appeared in 1932, to identify aircraft as friendly or unfriendly (identify friend or foe (IFF)). RFID quickly gained attention because of its ability to track moving objects. As the technology is refined, more pervasive and possibly invasive uses for RFID tags are in the works >Asset management is a problem based by almost all companies and institutions. Companies need to keep track of their costly assets like Laptop, PDA, vehicles etc. When using RFID based asset management every asset will be tagged. If an asset is being removed from the store the reader at the store door marks its entry out and the person who is taking this out. If anyone tries to take it out without the usual procedure of checking out it will be detected outside and alarm will ring. Since every usage of the system is monitored and stored, we can generate various types reports from this software.14. BLUETOOTH HOME AUTOMATIONBluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs), also known as IEEE 802.15.1. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras and video game consoles via a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency. Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. The idea behind bluetooth home automation is to control all the appliances in a house using bluetooth technology. Every appliance will be wired using a bluetooth controller. These devices can be named internally and be searched and found out using any bluetooth mobile or an embedded bluetooth remote controlled specifically made for this purpose. We can write a controller program for mobile phone. The program can scan for appliances in range and connect to them. Then the user can issue commands to control them. We can turn off lights, control the speed of fan etc. The device controller will be an embedded system which is always open to connection requests from mobile phones or hand held controllers or even computers fitted with a bluetooth adapter. The remote can be a bluetooth mobile phone or a specially designed remote. We can embed security features like a pass code also to prevent unauthorized access and control.While using a PC for controlling the appliances the PC will have a program that shows a GUI for controlling the appliances. The Program can be written in .net or Java. A better choice of language is .NET as the language has got extensive support for bluetooth applications.15. MICROPROCESSOR BASED RAILWAY SYSTEMThe aim of this project is to demonstrate the incorporation of computer method in railway traffic control to improve, safety, speed of handling the traffic and reliability. Here we employ the microprocessor (Intel 8085) to handle the signaling, track changing and gate operation and to monitoring the traffic. The system starts with the tracking if the train is sensed at the station side or starts with the gate operation (i.e. gate closing and opening) along with the track changing if the train is sensed at the gate side. Once the train arrival is sensed at a distance of about 3 kms the microprocessor performs the gate operation along with the track changing, the identification of the train is done at a distance of 3 kms accordingly the particular operation is performed by the processor. Depending upon the priority of the incoming train, the unengaged track is given for train halting.

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