# Energy and Power Foundations of Technology Energy and Power © 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEM  Center for Teaching

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• Foundations of Technology

Energy and Power 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Teacher Resource Unit 3 Lesson 1

STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

• The BIG IdeaBig Idea:

Advancements in the processing and controlling of energy have been an enabling factor in the development of technology.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThere are four laws of thermodynamics that help to define things like energy, the flow of energy, and temperature.

Each law helps to define how these physical properties behave as well as to determine what is and is not possible.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsZeroth Law of ThermodynamicsHelps to Define Temperature If each of two systems is equal to a third, then the first two are also equal.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics:The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, however energy can flow from one form to another.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics:Internal Energy and the Relationship to Temperature If a system has a temperature, then the total energy of the system has three partskinetic energy, potential energy, and internal energyand as the internal energy increases, so does the potential energy.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics:Heat Flow is a Form of Energy Transfer Heat that flows from a hot system to a cold system can be expressed as energy transfer.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe First Law of Thermodynamics:When a tool/machine moves an object, the object absorbs some of the energy from the tool/machine.Performing Work is a Form of Energy Transfer Work is equal to the force you exert and the distance an object moves.W = F X D

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy Flows Away From its Source Energy or heat cannot move from a cold system to a hot system, and you cannot continually produce work without adding energy because energy flows away from its source.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

Source

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsThe Third Law of ThermodynamicsAs a System Approaches Absolute Zero, Energy is Not Produced Molecules cease to move as temperatures reach absolute zero, thus energy is not produced.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsQuick Review:

The Zeroth Law helps to define temperature.

First Law of Thermodynamics discusses:Law of Conservation of EnergyInternal Energy and the Relationship to TemperatureHeat Flow is a Form of Energy TransferPerforming Work is a Form of Energy Transfer 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• ThermodynamicsQuick Review:

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that energy flows away from its source.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that as a system approaches absolute zero, energy is not produced.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• How Energy is Generated 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Power SystemsAll Power Systems have a source of energy, a process, and a load.Using the previous example of Coal:

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Forms of EnergyThere are six major forms of energy:Thermal or heat, the vibration/movement of atoms within systems. Radiant or light, the electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves.Electrical energy made available by the flow of an electric charge through a conductor.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Forms of EnergyThere are six major forms of energy:Mechanical energy stored in the movement of objects or systemsChemical energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules (examples: biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal)Nuclear energy stored in the nucleus of an atomthe energy that holds the nucleus together

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Renewable Vs. Non-RenewablePower plants generate electricity from various energy resources. Energy sources can be classified as:

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

Renewable:WaterWindSolarNon-Renewable:Fossil FuelsUranium

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Renewable EnergyRenewable energy is energy that comes from natural resources like water, wind, and solar. Hydroelectric power plants use the downward flow of water to turn the blades of a turbine. Wind works similarly; as wind blows, it turns the blades of a turbine. Solar power plants generate electricity by converting the radiant energy from sunlight to electrical energy.Renewable energy accounts for 17% of the worlds energy sources.

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Non-Renewable EnergyNonrenewable resources are resources that are limited or fossil fuels, like coal, oil, and natural gas.Fossil fuels provide around 81% of the worlds electrical power.However, oil and coal power plants produce harmful environmental emissions. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

• Non-Renewable EnergyNuclear power is also considered a nonrenewable energy source.Nuclear power is generated using uranium and produces around 3% of the worlds energy needs.The