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  • Environmental issue report No 31

    Energy and environment in the European Union

  • 1

    Energy and environment in the European Union

    Environmental issue report No 31

    Prepared by: AEA Technology Environment , partner to

    European Topic Cent re on Air and Climate Change,

    Aphrodite Mourelatou and Ian Smith, European Environment Agency

    Project manager: Aphrodite Mourelatou

    European Environment Agency

  • Energy and environment in the European Union2

    Note

    The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the European Commission or other European Communities institutions. Neither the European Environment Agency nor any person or company acting on behalf of the Agency is responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.

    A great deal of information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).

    Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.

    Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2002

    ISBN 92-9167-468-0

    © EEA, Copenhagen 2002

    European Environment Agency Kongens Nytorv 6 DK-1050 Copenhagen K Denmark Tel.: (+45) 33 36 71 00 Fax: (+45) 33 36 71 99 E-mail: eea@eea.eu.int Internet: http://www.eea.eu.int

    Cover: EEA Layout: Folkmann Design A/S

    Printed in Denmark

  • 3

    Foreword ................................................................................................................. 7

    Summary ................................................................................................................. 9

    Introduction..................................................................................................................9

    1. Is the use of energy having less impact on the environment? ...........................11

    1.a. Greenhouse gas emissions ..........................................................................11

    1.b . Air pollution .................................................................................................12

    1.c. Other energy-re lated pressures ...................................................................13

    2. Are we using less energy? ..................................................................................14

    3. How rap id ly is energy e fficiency be ing increased? ............................................ 15

    4. Are we switching to less-polluting fue ls? ...........................................................16

    5. How rap id ly are renewable energy technolog ies be ing implemented? ............ 17

    6. Are we moving towards a pricing system that better incorporates environmental costs? ..................................................18

    Int roduct ion .....................................................................................................................19

    1. Is the use of energy having less impact on the environment? ............................. 23

    1.1. Greenhouse gas emissions ..................................................................................24

    1.2. Air pollution......................................................................................................... 28

    1.3. Other energy-re lated pressures ...........................................................................30

    2. Are we using less energy? .................................................................................... 36

    3. How rapidly is energy efficiency being increased? .............................................. 39

    3.1 Efficiency in energy supply ...................................................................................40

    3.2 Efficiency in energy consumption .........................................................................44

    4. Are we switching to less-pollut ing fuels? ............................................................. 47

    5. How rapidly are renewable energy technologies being implemented? .............. 51

    6. Are we moving towards a pricing system that bet ter incorporates environmental costs? .................................................... 54

    Annex ............................................................................................................... 61

    References ............................................................................................................... 62

    Acronyms and abbreviat ions ...................................................................................... 67

    Contents

  • Energy and environment in the European Union4

    Summary figures

    • Change in energy-re lated greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector, 1990–99 ............................................................................................11

    • Performance in reducing total and energy-re lated greenhouse gas emissions to meet Kyoto Protocol targets, 1999 .........................................................11

    • Change in total and energy-re lated emissions of nitrogen oxides, 1990–99 ..............12

    • Exp lanations for the reduction of emissions of sulphur d ioxide in the e lectricity sector, 1990–99 ............................................................................................12

    • Marine environment oil pollution from re fineries and offshore installations, and from accidental o il tanker sp ills (above 7 tonnes per sp ill) ..............13

    • Annual quantit ies of spent nuclear fue l from nuclear power p lant ..............................13

    • Final energy consumption and e lectricity consumption growth, 1990–99 ...................14

    • Final energy consumption.............................................................................................14

    • Share of gross e lectricity production from combined heat and power p lant, 1994 and 1998 ..............................................................................................................15

    • Annual change in final energy intensity, 1990–99 ........................................................15

    • Total energy consumption by source ............................................................................16

    • Electricity production by source ...................................................................................16

    • Share of total energy consumption provided by renewable energy sources ...............17

    • Share of e lectricity consumption met by renewable energy sources, 1999 .................17

    Report figures

    Figure 1. Examples of the environmental pressures imposed at diffe rent stages of the energy supply and demand chain ...........................................20

    Figure 2. Greenhouse gas emissions.............................................................................24

    Figure 3. Change in total and energy-re lated greenhouse gas emissions ....................26

    Figure 4. Energy-re lated greenhouse gas emissions .....................................................27

    Figure 5. Change in total and energy-re lated sulphur d ioxide emissions .....................28

    Figure 6. Change in total and energy-re lated emissions of nitrogen oxides ................30

    Figure 7. Change in total and energy-re lated NMVOC emissions ................................31

    Figures and boxes

  • 5

    Figure 8. Energy-re lated primary and secondary particulate emissions.......................33

    Figure 9. Marine environment oil pollution ...................................................................34

    Figure 10. Annual quantit ies of spent nuclear fue l from nuclear power p lant ................35

    Figure 11. Final energy consumption..............................................................................37

    Figure 12. Growth in final energy consumption and e lectricity consumption, 1990–99...................................................................................38

    Figure 13. Ratio of final to total energy consumption ....................................................40

    Figure 14. Improvement in fossil fue l e lectricity production e fficiency ...........................42

    Figure 15. Share of gross e lectricity production from combined heat and power p lant ............................................................................................43

    Figure 16. Final energy consumption, gross domestic product and final energy intensity ......................................................................................44

    Figure 17. Annual change in final energy intensity, 1990–99 ..........................................44

    Figure 18. Annual change in sectoral energy intensities and related drivers, 1990–99..........................................................................................................45

    Figure 19. Total energy consumption by source .............................................................48

    Figure 20. Electricity production by source.....................................................................49

    Figure 21. Share of total energy consumption provided by renewable energy sources ................................................................................................52

    Figure 22. Share of e lectricity consumption met by r

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