endotracheal intubation ncm 106

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is the placement of a tube into the trachea (windpipe) in order to maintain an open airway in patients who are unconscious or unable to breathe on their own. Oxygen, anesthetics, or other gaseous medications can be delivered through the tube.

Airway protection To treat profound hypoxaemia and respiratory failure and to initiate positive pressure ventilation To facilitate tracheal suction and the removal of secretions

To maintain respiratory function during surgery/anaesthetics

respiratory arrest respiratory failure airway obstruction need for prolonged ventilatory support multiple trauma, head injury and abnormal mental status inhalation injury with erythema/edema of the vocal cords

Laryngoscopes, Self-refilling bag valve combination A selection of endotracheal tubes

Oral airwaysGloves A rigid oral suctioning catheter

Stethoscope Checked and working ventilator Resuscitation equipment immediately available in case of complications Lubrication, Magill forceps, introducer 10ml syringe tape

The nurse should tell the patient what is about to happen, and they should then be pre-oxygenated.

The doctor often inserts the tube with the help of a laryngoscope, . During the procedure the laryngoscope is used to hold the tongue aside while inserting the tube into the trachea. It is important that the head be positioned in the appropriate manner to allow for proper visualization. Pressure is often applied to the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple)to help with visualization and prevent possible aspiration of stomach contents Intubation Procedure.3gp

Gather all the materials needed Check the light of the laryngoscope The patient's position flat with their face at the level of the xiphoid cartilage of the standing person performing the procedure Compresses the cricoid cartilage against the cervical vertebrae do open gloving or wear personal protective equipment

nurse should calmly describe the vital-signs status of the patient regularly Be prepared to pass the ET tube and other equipment to the person intubating or physician If necessary, suction patients pharynx observed for equal expansion and auscultation performed at the mid-axillary line Administer sedatives, per doctors order

The tube should be securedpatient attached to an appropriate ventilator and a check X-ray ordered arterial blood gases should be taken auscultate both sides of the chest suction secretions via the Endotracheal Tub

Trauma to lips, teeth, vocal chords Transient cardiac arrhythmia related to vagal or sympathetic nerve traffic

Hypertension, tachycardia or raised intracranial pressureAspiration. Infection

Tracheal ulceration Tracheal stenosis Hypersalivation Laryngeal oedema

Bronchospasm

Reduced ability to communicate Biting on tube Discomfort Tube kinked or damaged on insertion, resulting in perforation and leaks

is a medical procedure that involves the removal of fluid from the pericardial sac.

Pericardial effusion

chest X-rays, blood tests, electrocardiogram, echocardiograms anti-inflammatory medicines and blood thinners

the patient is required to take a supine position the doctor is guided with the use of an ultrasound or electrocardiographic device.

After the needle is positioned correctly, the doctor replaces it with a catheter.a cardiocentesis procedure lasts for two minutes to one hour, if the method runs without complications.

Close care Monitor for pericardial output

Bleeding lung collapse heart attack or irregular heartbeat severe perforation Pneumopericardium Pericardiocentesis.3gp

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