Endocrine System. Regulates overall metabolism, homeostasis, growth and reproduction Glands – are ductless (tubeless) organs that specialize in the

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Endocrine System </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Regulates overall metabolism, homeostasis, growth and reproduction Glands are ductless (tubeless) organs that specialize in the secretion of substances needed by an organism directly into the bloodstream. Hormones chemical substances that are produced in glands and help regulate your bodys functions. The secretions produced by the endocrine glands - released into the bloodstream </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Endocrine Glands Hypothalamus part of the CNS, but it produces hormones that influence the pituitary gland Pituitary Gland the master gland regulates and controls the activities of all of the other endocrine glands. -Located at the base of the brain -Secretes growth hormone which affects growth of bone and cartilage </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Why is the Hypothalamus so Important? Secretes regulatory homones RH RIH "Directs" pituitary </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Pituitary The pituitary gland produces a growth hormone which controls growth and homeostasis. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Endocrine Glands (continued) Thyroid Gland -Located in the neck -Secretes thyroxine which regulates the rate of metabolism in the body Parathyroid Gland -Embedded in the back of the thyroid -Secretes parathormone which controls metabolism of calcium and phosphate </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Thyroid The thyroid gland produces thyroxin to regulate metabolism. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Parathyroid The parathyroid gland produces parathormone which controls calcium levels in the body. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Endocrine Glands (continued) Adrenal Glands -Located on top of the kidneys -Secrete adrenaline which helps deal with stress and accelerates the heart and breathing rates -Fight or Flight Islets of Langerhans specialized cells -Located in the pancreas -Secrete insulin and glucagon -Insulin lowers blood sugar -Glucagon raises blood sugar </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Adrenal Insufficiency Addisons disease--hyposecretion of cortisol JFK Darkened skin (ACTH mimics MSH) Weight loss, hypoglycemia Find the anomaly in the feedback loop. Inability to handle stress </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Adrenals The adrenal glands produce adrenaline in response to physical and emotional stress. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Adrenal gland </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Adrenal Problems </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Liver and Pancreas </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin which controls sugar levels in the blood. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Endocrine Glands (continued) Gonads sex glands -Male gonads are called testes -Located in the scrotum -Secrete testosterone which regulates male secondary sex characteristics -Female gonads are called ovaries -Located in the pelvic region -Secrete estrogen and progesterone which regulate female secondary sex characteristics </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Testes (in males) Testes The testes produce testosterone used in sperm production and the development of male traits. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Ovaries (in Females) Ovaries The ovaries produce estrogen used in egg production and the development of female traits. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback is when an activity alters a condition in the body, and this triggers a series of events that reverses the altered condition Ex. Body temperature -When body temp. goes up, we sweat -When body temp. goes down, we shiver Ex. Blood sugar levels -When blood sugar goes up, insulin lowers blood sugar -When blood sugar goes down, glucagon raises blood sugar </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> A. Positive Feedback Not common Classic example: Action of OXYTOCIN on uterine muscle during birth. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Disorders Diabetes is a disease where a person cannot produce insulin -Inability of the body to store sugar as glycogen Goiter is enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> DIABETES </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Goiter </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Other Disorders Graves Disease: hyperthyroidism, an autoimmune disorder in which an overactive and enlarged thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroxine. Cushings Disease: overproduction of adrenal hormones. Growth Disorders: abnormal amounts of growth hormone. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> GH as Juvenile (Gigantism) </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> GH = pituitary dwarfism </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> GH as an Adult </li> </ul>