Endocrine System. Endocrine vs Exocrine Endo = within Exo = outCrine = to secrete  Exocrine glands (sweat, sebaceous, digestive) secrete products through

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  • Slide 1
  • Endocrine System
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  • Endocrine vs Exocrine Endo = within Exo = outCrine = to secrete Exocrine glands (sweat, sebaceous, digestive) secrete products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces Endocrine glands are small, inconspicuous, ductless tissues that deposit products into the interstitial tissues that bathe the cells.
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  • Hormonal Actions Reproduction Growth and Development Mobility of body defenses Maintenance of blood electrolyte, water and nutrient balance Regulation of cellular metabolism Energy balance Regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body
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  • Chemistry of Hormones Body produces a large variety of hormones Classified chemically as: A)Amino acid based 1)Makes up the majority 2)Can be simple AA derivatives or long polymers B)Steroids 1)derived from cholesterol 2)only gonadal and adrenocortical hormones C)Prostaglandins/Eicosanoids 1)Derived from lipids 2)Leukotrienes 3)Protaglandins
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  • Endocrine System Focuses on the hormonal control of the body Integrates with nervous system to maintain homeostasis Nerves stimulus received milliseconds Muscle/Gland Activity Endocrine Gland Stimulus received Increase in metabolic activity in most body cells Seconds toDays
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  • Endocrine Hormones
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  • Steroid Hormone Signaling
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  • Amino Acid-Based Hormone Action: cAMP Second Messenger
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  • Second Messenger Mechanisms Cyclic AMP Activated G-protein moves along the membrane; binds and activates the enzyme Adenylate Cyclase Receptor changes shape and binds to an inactive G-protein GTP in the cytoplasm binds to and turns on the G-protein Activated Adenylate Cyclase generates the second messenger cAMP from ATP Hormone binds to its receptor on the Target cell membrane cAMP now triggers cascade reactions to activate protein kinase, which can catalyze hundreds of reactions ATP = Adenocine Triphosphate
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  • How Hormones work? 1.Hormones signal a cell by binding to specific receptors on or in the cell 2.lock and key 3.alter chemical rxns in target cell (ex. Initiate synthesis of new protein) 4.different hormones can work together- synergism 5.different hormones can have opposite effect- antagonism
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  • Prostaglandins lipid molecules that are similar to, but do not meet usually definition of, a hormone A through I secreted by seminal vesicles, kidneys, lungs, iris, brain, thymus varied functions. Ex: PGE- regulate HCL secretion in stomach PGF- cause uterus contractions; induce labor
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  • Prostaglandins
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  • Hormone Interaction at Target Cells Multiple hormones acting upon target cells simultaneously = varied results Permissiveness = one hormone depends upon another in order to have full effect (reproductive hormones need thyroid hormones) Synergism = More than one hormone amplifies the desired effect (glucagon and epinephrine cause liver to release glucose) Anatgonism = One hormone opposes the action of another (insulin and glucagon produce opposite effects on blood glucose levels)
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  • Control of Hormone Release Humoral Stimuli Respond to blood levels of ions and nutrients Aldosterone (Kidney) Insulin (Pancreas) Neural Stimuli Respond to innervation Sympathetic nervous system releases Epinephrine and Norepinephrine during stress Hormonal Stimuli Respond to release of other hormones
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  • Endocrine Organs & Hormones
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  • Overview of the hypothalamic-pituitary system
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  • The pituitary gland (Hypophysis) 1. master gland 2. stalk- infundibulum 3. 2 parts: 1.adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)- secretes GH, TSH, PRL, LH, FSH, MSH- actually controlled by hypothalamus releasing hormones (ex. GnRH) 2.neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)- secretes ADH and OT hangs from diencephalon
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  • Pituitary Gland Posterior pituitary: axons from hypothalamus Oxytocin & ADH
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  • Pineal Body Pineal Body- part of diencephalon biological clock- sleeping; female reproductive cycle secretes melatonin- induces sleep; secretion inhibited by sunlight
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  • Thyroid Gland: Master of metabolism below larynx secretes Thyroid hormones T4 T3 Calcitonin, CT
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  • Thyroid Glands Cell Type Follicular cells Parafollicular cells HormoneThyroid Hormones (T3,T4) Calcitonin RegulatorTSH Calcitonin Target Tissueall tissues Bone FunctionRegulates basal metabolic rate Regulates blood Ca++ levels in and has important influences concert with parathyroid hormone. on growth and maturation. Calcitonin lowers Ca++ by inhibiting decalcification of bone.
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  • Parathyroid Gland Acts on: Bone: increases blood calcium by inhibiting osteoblast deposition of calcium and stimulating osteoclast removal of calcium. Kidney: increases blood calcium by increasing calcium ion reabsorption by kidney tubular cells; inhibits reabsorption of phosphate ion from the glomerular filtrate Small intestine: increases the absorption of calcium from the small intestine Parathyroid Glands- 4 or 5; posterior surface of thyroid; secrete PTH
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  • Calcium regulation PTH - increases blood calcium by taking in out of bones, kidney, and small intestine Calcitonin - decreases blood calcium by stimulating uptake into bone
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  • Parathyroid Hormone & Ca 2+
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  • Adrenal Glands (aka suprarenal) top of kidneys; secrete corticosteroids which are divided into: 1.Mineralocorticoid- aldosterone 2.glucocorticoids- cortisol; cortisone 3.gonadocorticoids- androgens
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  • Whats this stress mess?
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  • The Endocrine Pancreas The endocrine pancreas is formed by the Islets of Langerhans that are scattered throughout the exocrine tissue. Secretes the following: glucagon Insulin Somatostatin pancreatic polypeptide Islets of Langerhans
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  • A sweet battle: Insulin vs. Glucagon
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  • What happens when there is no insulin?
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  • Miscellaneous structures that produce hormones 1. Placenta- secretes hCG 2. thymus- thymosin and thymopoietin 3. gastric & intestinal mucosa- gastrin, secretin 4. heart- ANH


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