ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine - stkate-las. ??Function • Help regulate internal functions • Use chemical messengers • Recall: Endocrine vs. Exocrine glands • Nervous System vs Endocrine System

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  • Endocrine

    ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • Function

    Help regulate internal functions

    Use chemical messengers

    Recall: Endocrine vs. Exocrine glands

    Nervous System vs Endocrine System

  • Target Specificity

    Lock n Key action

    Hormone-Receptor Complex

    Hormone

    Receptor

  • Glands

    ENDOCRINE GLANDS & HORMONES

  • Hypothalamus

    Functions both as an Endocrine Gland and nervous tissue.

    Location

    Hormones

    Tropic Hormones

  • Pituitary Gland

    Two Parts: Anterior and Posterior

    Anterior Pituitary Gland (APG)

    Growth Hormone (GH)

    Prolactin

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

    Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

  • Pituitary Contd

    Posterior Pituitary (PPG)

    Oxytocin (OT)

    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

    Hypothalamic control:

    APG: stimulated by hormones from hypothalamus

    PPG: modified axons

  • Fig. 17.4

    Third ventricle of brain

    Median eminence

    Hypothalamohypophyseal tract

    Stalk (infundibulum)

    Neurohypophysis:

    Posterior lobe

    Pars tuberalis

    Anterior lobe

    Adenohypophysis:

    (a)

    Optic chiasm

    Nuclei of hypothalamus:

    Paraventricular nucleus

    Supraoptic nucleus

    Oxytocin

    Antidiuretic hormone

    (b)

    Portal venules

    Posterior lobe

    Anterior lobe

    Hypothalamic hormones

    Anterior lobe hormones

    Pineal gland

    Cerebral aqueduct

    Mammillary body

    Anterior Posterior

    Primary capillaries

    Neuron

    cell body

    Axons to

    primary

    capillaries

    Floor of

    hypothalamus

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone

    Prolactin-inhibiting hormone

    Growth hormonereleasing hormone

    Somatostatin

    Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Luteinizing hormone

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Prolactin

    Growth hormone

    Superior hypophyseal

    artery

    Secondary

    capillaries

    Hypophyseal

    portal system:

    Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  • Thyroid

    Follicles: Produce Hormones

    Hormones

    Thyroxine (T4)

    Triiodothryonine (T3)

    Both used iodine and have nonspecific target cells

    Calorigenic effect

    Colloid: Stores Hormones, jelly-like structure

    Parafollicular Cells: Cells found between follicles produce Calcitonin

    Calcitonin

  • Fig. 17.9

    Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

    Follicle

    TracheaInferior thyroid vein

    (b)

    Isthmus

    (a)

    Superior thyroid

    artery and veinThyroid

    cartilage

    Thyroid

    gland

    Follicular

    cells

    Colloid of

    thyroglobulin

    C (parafollicular)

    cells

    b: Robert Calentine/Visuals Unlimited

  • Fig. 17.7

    Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

    TRH

    TSH

    Target organs

    Thyroid hormone

    Stimulatory effect

    Inhibitory effect

    2

    3

    4

    1

    5

    6

    +

    +

    +

    +

    Negative feedback

    inhibition

    -

    -

  • Location

    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

    Parathyroid Gland

  • Adrenal Glands

    Sits on top of each Kidney

    Receives a lot of Blood from Renal Artery

    2 sections:

    Medulla: Inner layer

    Cortex: Outer layer, has sub-layers or zones.

  • Adrenal Cortex

    Aldosterone

    Produced in outer zone

    Regulates Electrolytes

    Cortisol

    Produced in middle zone

    Regulates metabolism and glucose

    Androgens

    Produced in inner zone

    Sex steroids

  • Adrenal medulla

    Produces and releases epinephrine and noreprinephrine.

    Functions:

    Gluconeogenesis

    Glycogenolysis

    Increased cardiac function

    Increased blood flow to muscles

    Increased pulmonary ventilation

  • Pancreas

    Exocrine and Endocrine Gland

    Acinar Cells produce pancreatic juices

    Islet cells produce hormones

    Beta Cells

    Produce insulin

    Lowers Blood Glucose levels and stores glucose in cells

    Alpha Cells

    Produce glucagon

    Increase Blood Glucose levels by releasing glucose into blood stream

    Antagonistic Effect

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