Endocrine System Endocrine glands- release hormones

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<ul><li><p>Endocrine SystemEndocrine glands- release hormones</p></li><li><p>Pituitary Master GlandProduces largest # of bodys hormonesAttached to hypothalamus &amp; communication between themHormones:Growth (amount &amp; timing of growth) Vasopressin (regulates amount of water in the bodys cells)Oxytocin (contraction of uterus &amp; produce milk, + correlation between this hormone and sexual activity)</p></li><li><p>Pineal GlandSecretes melatoninHigh levels = drowsiness</p></li><li><p>ThyroidProduces hormone thyroxinThyroxin- regulates bodys rate of metabolism</p></li><li><p>Liver &amp; PancreasLiver- aid metabolism &amp; detoxifies poisonous substancesPancreas- controls the level of sugar in the blood by secreting insulinToo much sugar (underproduction of insulin)= diabetesNot enough sugar (over secretion of insulin) = hypoglycemia</p></li><li><p>Adrenal GlandsAffect the bodys reaction to stress (autonomic NS)Hormone: epinephrine activates the sympathetic divisionHormone: norepinephrine (also a neurotransmitter) raises blood pressure</p></li><li><p>Behavioral Genetics- studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traitsHeredity- trait you inheritHeritability- you have the chance to inherit but you might not get it</p></li><li><p> human cells contains 46 chromosomes (except sex cells: egg/sperm) which operate in 23 pair1-22 Autosomes23 Sex ChromosomesAbnormalities can occur in cell divisionMonosomy- missing a chromosome from a pair EX: Turner Syndrome (OX)Trisomy- more than 2 chromosomes on a pair EX: Down Syndrome (3 copies of chromosome 21)</p></li><li><p>Genes (segments of DNA) operate in pairs; 1 gene in each pair coming from 1 parentMutation- change in a piece of DNA (can increase the variability in a gene pool)Homozygous- 2 genes in a pair are the sameHeterozygous- 2 genes in a pair are differentDominant v. Recessive GeneEx: Detached (D) or Attached (R ) earlobes</p></li><li><p>Genotype- persons genetic make-upFixed foreverPhenotype- ways in which a persons genotype is manifested into observable characteristicsMay change over time (Ex: hair color)Polygenic traits- characteristics that are influenced by more than 1 pair of genesEx: Skin color is determined by 3-5 gene pairs</p></li></ul>

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