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Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Endocrine System Called ductless glands because they have no ducts connecting them to specific body parts Called ductless glands because they have no ducts connecting them to specific body parts Secrete hormones released directly into the bloodstream Secrete hormones released directly into the bloodstream Slide 5 Endocrinology, the study of the endocrine glands, is an important branch of modern medicine. Endocrinologists are medical doctors who specialize in researching and treating disorders and diseases of the endocrine system. Endocrinology, the study of the endocrine glands, is an important branch of modern medicine. Endocrinologists are medical doctors who specialize in researching and treating disorders and diseases of the endocrine system. Slide 6 Endocrine System, group of specialized organs and body tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical substances known as hormones. Endocrine System, group of specialized organs and body tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical substances known as hormones. Slide 7 Hormones are chemical messengers produced by a tissue or organ and secreted directly into the bloodstream affecting specific target cells. Hormones are chemical messengers produced by a tissue or organ and secreted directly into the bloodstream affecting specific target cells. Slide 8 Hormone effects stimulation or inhibition of growth induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death) activation or inhibition of the immune system regulation of metabolism preparation for a new activity (e.g., fighting, fleeing, mating) Slide 9 Hormone effects preparation for a new phase of life (e.g., puberty, caring for offspring, menopause) controlling the reproductive cycle In many cases, one hormone may regulate the production and release of other hormones Slide 10 How the System Works Secreted directly into the bloodstream Special proteins usually bind to them to keep them intact Only a small fraction of the hormone circulates in the blood to affect the target tissue Slide 11 How the System Works Receptors in the target tissue, bind with the hormones Induction of chemical changes Only minute concentrations are needed to achieve the desired effect Slide 12 Hormone Regulation WWWWhen one hormone stimulates the production of a second, the second suppresses the production of the first. Example: The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the release of estrogens from the ovarian follicle. A high level of estrogen, in turn, suppresses the further production of FSH. Slide 13 AAAAntagonistic pairs of hormones. Example: Insulin causes the level of blood sugar (glucose) to drop when it has risen. Glucagon causes it to rise when it has fallen. Slide 14 HHHHormone secretion is increased (or decreased) by the same substance whose level is decreased (or increased) by the hormone. Example: A rising level of Ca+2 in the blood suppresses the production of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). A low level of Ca+2 stimulates it. Slide 15 Slide 16 The primary glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body, and reproductive glandsthe ovary and testis. The pancreas, an organ often associated with the digestive system, is also considered part of the endocrine system. The primary glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body, and reproductive glandsthe ovary and testis. The pancreas, an organ often associated with the digestive system, is also considered part of the endocrine system. Slide 17 Hypothalamus Gland Found deep within the brain, directly controls the pituitary gland Found deep within the brain, directly controls the pituitary gland Coordinator of the endocrine system. Coordinator of the endocrine system. May secrete body chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary gland to affect the other glands May secrete body chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary gland to affect the other glands The primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems. The primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Slide 18 Hypothalamus Gland Slide 19 Pituitary Gland Often described as the master gland, the pituitary secretes several hormones that regulate the function of the other endocrine glands. Often described as the master gland, the pituitary secretes several hormones that regulate the function of the other endocrine glands. It is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. It is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. Slide 20 Slide 21 Pituitary Gland ANTERIOR LOBE HORMONES EFFECT: stimulates Human growth hormone/ somatotropin (HGH) Body skeletal growth and metabolism Gonadotropic hormone (GH) Male and female sex organs Lactogenic hormone/ Prolactin Milk production Thyrotropic hormone Thyroid glands Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal glands Slide 22 Pituitary Gland POSTERIOR LOBE HORMONES EFFECT: stimulates Oxytocin Contractions of uterus/ milk production Vasopressin/ Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) Reabsorption of water in kidneys Slide 23 Click to open the link Slide 24 Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland, located in the neck, secretes hormones in response to stimulation by TSH from the pituitary gland. Slide 25 Thyroid Gland HORMONES HORMONESEFFECT Thyroxine Stimulates the breakdown of nutrients to release energy Calcitonin Affects the level of calcium in the blood and phosphate in the bone Slide 26 Parathyroid Glands TTTThe parathyroid glands are four small glands located at the four corners of the thyroid gland. Slide 27 Parathyroid Glands HORMONE HORMONEEFFECT Parathyroid hormone/ Parathormone (PTH) Balances the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood Slide 28 Adrenal Glands Located on top of the kidneys The outer part, called the adrenal cortex, produces a variety of hormones called corticosteroids, which include cortisol The inner part, the adrenal medulla, produces catecholamines, such as epinephrine, also called adrenaline Slide 29 Slide 30 Adrenal Gland HORMONES HORMONES EFFECT: stimulates Epinephrine Epinephrine Triggers various physiological changes in the body during stressful l conditions Mineralocorticoids Balance salt and water in the kidneys Glucocorticoids Promote increase in blood glucose Sex hormones Promote development of sexual characteristics Slide 31 Pineal Gland/ Body Located in the middle of the brain Secretes melatonin, that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle Research has shown that disturbances in the secretion of melatonin are responsible, in part, for the jet lag associated with long- distance air travel. Slide 32 Pineal Gland Slide 33 Pancreas Although part of the digestive system, it is also considered to be part of the endocrine system. The pancreas is positioned in the upper abdomen, just under the stomach. Slide 34 Pancreas: Islets of Langerhans HORMONESEFFECT Glucagon (Alpha cells) Allows the liver to convert glycogen to glucose Insulin (Beta cells) Regulates sugar oxidation in tissues Enables liver to store sugar Slide 35 Ovaries Located in the pelvis and produce egg cells They also secrete a number of female sex hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, which control development of the reproductive organs, stimulate the appearance of female secondary sex characteristics, and regulate menstruation and pregnancy. Slide 36 Ovaries Slide 37 Testes Located in the scrotum, produce sperm cells and also secrete a number of male sex hormones, or androgens. Located in the scrotum, produce sperm cells and also secrete a number of male sex hormones, or androgens. The androgens, the most important of which is testosterone, regulate development of the reproductive organs, stimulate male secondary sex characteristics, and stimulate muscle growth. The androgens, the most important of which is testosterone, regulate development of the reproductive organs, stimulate male secondary sex characteristics, and stimulate muscle growth. Slide 38 Testes Slide 39 Animation Click to open the link Slide 40 Diseases Diabetes insipidus is caused by a deficiency of vasopressin, one of the antidiuretic hormones (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Patients often experience increased thirst and urination. Treatment is with drugs, such as synthetic vasopressin, that help the body maintain water and electrolyte balance. Diabetes insipidus is caused by a deficiency of vasopressin, one of the antidiuretic hormones (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Patients often experience increased thirst and urination. Treatment is with drugs, such as synthetic vasopressin, that help the body maintain water and electrolyte balance. Slide 41 Diseases Addison's disease is caused by decreased function of the adrenal cortex. Weakness, fatigue, abdominal pains, nausea, dehydration, fever, and hyperpigmentation (tanning without sun exposure) are among the many possible symptoms. Treatment involves providing the body with replacement corticosteroid hormones as well as dietary salt. Addison's disease is caused by decreased function of the adrenal cortex. Weakness, fatigue, abdominal pains, nausea, dehydration, fever, and hyperpigmentation (tanning without sun exposure) are among the many possible symptoms. Treatment involves providing the body with replacement corticosteroid hormones as well as dietary salt. Slide 42 Diseases Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive secretion of glucocorticoids, the subgroup of corticosteroid hormones that includes hydrocortisone, by the adrenal glands. Symptoms may develop over many years prior to diagnosis and may include obesity, physical weakness, easily bruised skin, acne, hypertension, and psychological changes. Treatment may include surge

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