encyclopedia of 20th century photography

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  1. 1. RT20021_FM_Vol1.indd 1RT20021_FM_Vol1.indd 1 9/29/05 11:45:02 AM9/29/05 11:45:02 AM Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess YellowProcess YellowProcess BlackProcess Black
  2. 2. BOARD OF ADVISORS Deborah Bright Faculty, Photography, Art and Architectural History Rhode Island School of Design Providence, Rhode Island Philip Brookman Senior Curator of Photography and Media Arts The Corcoran Gallery of Art Washington, D.C. Patty Carroll Photographer Chicago, Illinois Alan Cohen Faculty, Art History, Theory and Criticism School of The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois A.D. Coleman Critic and Historian of Photography New York, New York Linda Connor Faculty, Photography San Francisco Art Institute San Francisco, California Charles Desmarais Director Contemporary Arts Center Cincinnati, Ohio Natasha Egan Curator, Museum of Contemporary Photography Columbia College Chicago, Illinois Lisa K. Erf Curator of Collections Bank One Chicago, Illinois Marta Gili Head, Photography Department Serveis Centrals de la Fundacio la Caixa Barcelona, Spain iii
  3. 3. Ellen Handy Art History Faculty, Art Department City College of New York New York, New York Mark Haworth-Booth Senior Curator of Photographs Victoria and Albert Museum London, United Kingdom Lynn Herbert Senior Curator Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, Texas Eikoh Hosoe Photographer and Professor Tokyo, Japan John P. Jacob Director Photography Curators Resource Blue Hill, Maine Deborah Klochko Director Ansel Adams Center for Photography San Francisco, California Ryszard Kluszczynski Curator and Writer Warsaw, Poland Laura Letinsky Faculty, Committee on the Visual Arts University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois Asko Makela Director, Finnish Museum of Photography Helsinki, Finland Arthur Ollman Director and Curator Museum of Photographic Arts San Diego, California Esther G. Parada Faculty, Art Department, School of Art and Design University of Illinois Chicago, Illinois iv
  4. 4. Ulrich Pohlmann Director Munchner Stadtmuseum Munchen, Germany Charles Dare Scheips Archivist Conde Nast Publications New York, New York Charlotte Townsend-Gault Faculty, Department of Fine Arts University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Gary van Wyk Curator Axis Gallery New York, New York Katherine Ware Curator of Photographs Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Deborah Willis-Kennedy Curator Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. Trudy Wilner Stack Curator, Historian Tucson, Arizona Paul Wombell Director The Photographers Gallery London, United Kingdom Tim Wride Curator of Photography Los Angeles County Museum of Art Los Angeles, California v
  5. 5. New York London VOLUME 1 AFI N D E X RT20021_FM_Vol1.indd 2RT20021_FM_Vol1.indd 2 9/29/05 11:45:03 AM9/29/05 11:45:03 AM Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess YellowProcess YellowProcess BlackProcess Black
  6. 6. Published in 2006 by Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Published in Great Britain by Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-10: 1-57958-393-8 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-57958-393-4 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2005046287 No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography / Lynne Warren, editor. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-57958-393-8 (set : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-415-97665-0 (vol. 1: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-415-97666-9 (vol. 2 : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-415-97667-7 (vol. 3 : alk. paper) Photography, Artistic. I. Title: Encyclopedia of 20th century photography. II. Warren, Lynne. TR642.E5 2005 770'.9'0403--dc22 2005046287 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the Routledge Web site at http://www.routledge-ny.comTaylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of T&F Informa plc.
  7. 7. Contents Contributors xi Alphabetical List of Entries xv Thematic List of Entries xxi Glossary xxvii Introduction xxxvii Entries A to Z 1 Index I1 ix
  8. 8. CONTRIBUTORS Stuart Alexander Jenny Allred Redmann Vangelis Athanassopoulos Andrew Atkinson Lane Barden Suvash Barden Nancy Barr Terry Barrett Anne Barthe lemy Rob Baum Lili Bezner Momolina Bhattacharyya Heather Blaha Anne Blecksmith Nancy Breslin Amanda Brown Leslie K. Brown Wolfgang Brueckle Catherine Burdick Katherine Bussard Matthew Butson R.M. Callender Michael Carlebach Justin Carville Peter Caws James Charnock Milan Chlumsky Vincent Cianni Yves Clemmen Alan Cohen Jill Conner Leslie Humm Cormier Andy Crank Mike Crawford Isobel Crombie Cristina Cuevas-Wolf Thomas Cyril Lorraine Anne Davis Scott Davis Peter Decherney Anthony DeGeorge Margaret Denny Penelope Dixon Julia Dolan Donald A. Rosenthal Petra Dreiser Erina Duganne Jeffrey Edelstein xixi
  9. 9. Diana Edkins Jan Estep Hannah Feldman Jane Fletcher Stacey Fox Jason Francisco Daniel Friedman Maki Fukuoka John Fuller Michel Gaboury Monika Kin Gagnon William Ganis Daniella Geo Christian Gerstheimer Constance W. Glenn Renata Golden Richard Gordon Sara Greenberger Kristen Gresh Kristina Grub Justin Gustainis David Eduard Haberstich Sophie Hackett Matthias Harder Lindsay Harris Janice Hart Katharina Hausel Brigitte Hausmann Richard Haw Jennifer Headley Lisa Henry Scarlett Higgins Randy Hines Katherine Hoffman Ali Hossaini Kirsten Hoving Andrew Howe Richard Howells Christina Ionescu Brandi Iryshe Steven Jacobs Philippe Jarjat Karen Jenkins Martyn Jolly Birgit Kaufer Rachel Keith Jean Kempf Kay Kenny Geraldine Kiefer Laura Kleger Peter Kloehn Lilly Koltun Sabine Kriebel Yves Laberge Kimberly Lamm John H. Lawrence Susan Laxton Bob Lazaroff Peter Le Grand Danielle F. M. Leenaerts Marc Leverette Linda Levitt CONTRIBUTORS xii
  10. 10. Tricia R. Louvar Sarah Lowe Darwin Marable Sara L. Marion Kelly Maron Patrick Mathieu Stacey McCarroll Jim McDonald Sarah McDonald Bruce McKaig Lambert McLaurin Julie Mellby Ara Merjian Marco Merkli Johanna Mizgala Dominic Molon Stephen Monteiro Jean-Luc Monterosso Allison M. Moore Susan Morgan Rebecca Morse John Mraz Kevin J. Mulhearn Alla Myzelev Yasufumi Nakamori Caryn E. Neumann Nathalie Neumann Jennifer Olson-Rudenko Robert Oventile Daniel Palmer J. P. Park Sara-Jane Parsons Martin Patrick Lori Pauli Nancy Pedri John Peffer Michele Penhall Nuno Pinheiro Justin Pittas-Giroux Mark Pohlad Maren Polte Luca Prono Laurel Ptak Mark Rawlinson Shirley Read Kevin Reilly Melissa Renn Yolanda Retter Lyle Rexer Kate Rhodes Edward A. Riedinger Leesa Rittelmann Claudia Rivers Jean Robertson Naomi Rosenblum Cynthia Elyce Rubin Mark Rudnicki Esther Ruelfs Roberta Russo Rolf Sachsse Marisa Sanchez Manuel Santos CONTRIBUTORS xiiixiii
  11. 11. Roger Sayre Rudolf Scheutle Elizabeth Schlatter Franz-Xaver Schlegel Franziska Schmidt Jennifer Schneider Savannah Schroll Danielle Schwartz Erin Schwartz Rebecca Senf Jeffrey Shantz Roni Shapira Carla Rose Shapiro Nancy Shawcross Nabeela Sheikh Scott Sherer M. Kathryn Shields Elizabeth Siegel Christye Sisson George Slade Lynn Somers-Davis Linda Steer John Stomberg Ryuji Suzuki Johan Swinnen A. Krista Sykes Blaise Tobia Susan Todd-Raque Rebecca Tolley-Stokes Charlotte Townsend-Gault Peter Turner Stijn Van De Vyver Gary van Wyk Miriam Voss Scott Walden Rachel K. Ward Grant Warren Lynne Warren Shannon Wearing Max Weintraub Sarah Wheeler Elizabeth K. Whiting Renate Wickens Brian Winkenweder Marianne Berger Woods Kelly Xintaris Nancy Yakimoski Shin-Yi Yang Janet A. Yates Ronald Young Stephenie Young Raul Zamudio Leon Zimlich Annalisa Zox-Weaver Catherine Zuromkis CONTRIBUTORS xiv
  12. 12. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ENTRIES A Abbott, Berenice Abstraction Adams, Ansel Adams, Eddie Adams, Robert Aerial Photography Africa: An Overview, Photography in Africa: Central and West, Photography in Africa: East and Indian Ocean Islands, Photography in Africa: North, Photography in Africa: South and Southern, Photography in Afterimage Agitprop Alpert, Max An American Place Appropriation Araki, Nobuyoshi Arbus, Diane Architectural Photography Archives Arnold, Eve Art Institute of Chicago Artists Books Astrophotography Atget, Euge`ne Auerbach, Ellen Australia, Photography in Australian Centre for Photography B Ballen, Roger Baltz, Lewis Barr, Jr., Alfred H. Barthes, Roland Bauhaus Bayer, Herbert Beaton, Cecil Becher, Bernd and Hilla Bellmer, Hans Berger, John Berlinische Galerie Bernhard, Ruth Beuys, Joseph Bibliothe`que nationale de France Billingham, Richard Bischof, Werner Black Star Blossfeldt, Karl Blumenfeld, Erwin Body Art Boltanski, Christian Bourdeau, Robert Bourke-White, Margaret Bracketing Bragaglia, Anton Giulio Brandt, Bill Brassa Bravo, Manuel A lvarez Breitenbach, Joseph Brownie Bruguie`re, Francis Burgin, Victor Burning-In Burri, Rene Burrows, Larry Burson, Nancy C Cable Release Cadieux, Genevie`ve Cahun, Claude xv
  13. 13. Callahan, Harry Calle, Sophie Camera: 35 mm Camera: An Overview Camera: Diana Camera: Digital Camera: Disposable Camera: Instant or Polaroid Camera Obscura Camera: Pinhole Camera: Point and Shoot Canada, Photo

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