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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Legal Boundaries of the Employment Relationship..................................................4 The Idea of Employee Status...................................................................................4 i. Employees v. Independent Contractors.............................................................4 NLRB v. Hearst, 322 U.S. 111 (1944).............................................................4 Nationwide Mutual Insurance Co. v. Darden, 503 U.S. 319 (1992).................4 Clackamas Gastroenterology Associates v. Wells, 538 U.S. 440 (2003).........4 Vizcaino v. Microsoft Corp., 120 F.3d 1006 (9th Cir. 1997)............................5 ii. Statutory Exemptions, Small Employers, and Joint Employees ........................5 Zheng v. Liberty Apparel Co., 355 F.3d 61 (2d Cir. 2003)..............................5 ......................................................................................................................6 The Hiring Process...................................................................................................6 iii. Legal Restrictions on Job Access .....................................................................6 Wardwell v. Board of Education, 529 F.2d 625 (6th Cir. 1976)(School Teacher Case).................................................................................................6 Collins Food Intern., Inc. v. INS, 948 F.2d 549 (9th Cir. 1991)(Sizzler Case). .7 iv. Employer Information-Gathering.....................................................................7 1. Interviews......................................................................................................7 Lysak v. Seiler Corp, 614 N.E.2d 991 (Mass. 1993)........................................7 2. Employment References ...............................................................................7 Singer v. Beach Trading Co., 876 A.2d 885 (N.J. Super Ct. App. Div. 2005). . .7 Lewis v. Equitable Life Assurance Socy, 389 N.W. 2d 876 (Minn. 1986).......8 3. Invasion of Privacy.........................................................................................8 Eddy v. Brown, 715 P.2d 74 (Okla. 1986).......................................................8 Bratt v. IBM Corp., 785 F.2d 352 (1st Cir. 1986)............................................8 v. Negligent Hiring/Retention...............................................................................9 Malroney v. B&L Motor Freight, Inc., 496 N.E.2d 1086 (Ill. App. 1986)...........9 Keller v. Koca, 111 P.3d 445 (Colo. 2005)......................................................9 Kadlec v. Medical Center v. Lakeview Anesthesia Associates, 527 F.3d 412 (5th Cir. 2008)...............................................................................................10 Testing of Applicants and Employees....................................................................10 vi. Polygraph and Personality Tests....................................................................10 Soroka v. Dayton Hudson Corp., 1 Cal. Rptr 2d 77 (Cal.Ct. App. 1991)........10 vii. Drug Testing and the Constitution ...............................................................10 National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab, 489 U.S. 656 (1989).......11 Chandler v. Miller, 520 U.S. 305 (1997)(contrast with Von Raab)................11 viii. Drug Testing (conclusion) ...........................................................................11 19 Solid Waste Dept. Mechanics v. Albuquerque; 156 F.3d 1068 (10th Cir. 1998).............................................................................................................11 Luedtke v. Nabors Alaska Drilling Inc., 768 P.2d 1123 (Alaska 1989) ........12 Work Environment.................................................................................................12 ix. Grooming and Dress......................................................................................12 Kelley v. Johnson, 425 U.S. 238 (1976)........................................................12 Jespersen v. Harrahs Operating Co, Inc., 444 F.3d 1104 (9th Cir. 2006) ....12 Protecting Privacy on the Job.................................................................................13 x. Constitutional and Statutory Responses.........................................................13 1

Bodewig v. K-Mart, Inc, 635 P.2d 657 (Or. App. 1981).................................13 Vega-Rogriguez v. Puerto Rico Tel. Co., 110 F.3d 174 (1st Cir. 1997)..........13 xi. Common Law Responses...............................................................................13 Smyth v. Pyllsbury Co., 914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Pa. 1996)..............................13 Catalano v. GWD Management Corp., 2005 WL 5519861 (S.D. Ga. March 30, 2005).............................................................................................................13 xii. Off-Work Activity...........................................................................................14 Rulon-Miller v. IBM Corp., 162 Cal. App. 3d 241 (1984)...............................14 McCavitt v. Swiss Reinsurance America Co., 237 F.3d 166 (2d Cir. 2001) . .14 Freedom of Expression on and Away From the Job................................................14 Rankin v. McPherson, 483 U.S. 378 (1987)..................................................14 Curay-Cramer v. Ursuline Academy, 450 F.3d 130 (3d Cir. 2006)................14 Novosel v. Nationwide Insurance Co., 721 F.2d 894 (3d Cir. 1983)..............15 Jordan v. Ector County, 516 F.3d 290 (5th Cir. 2008)...................................15 II. Discharge and Termination of Employment..........................................................16 A. The Employment At-Will Rule............................................................................16 Buian v. Jacobs and Co., 428 F.2d 531 (2d Cir. 1970)..................................16 B. Erosion of Employment at Will...........................................................................16 xiii. The Public Policy Exception..........................................................................16 Gantt v. Sentry Insurance, 4 Cal. Rptr. 2d 874 (Cal. 1992)..........................16 Arres v. IMI Cornelius Remcor, Inc., 333 F.3d 812 (7th Cir. 2003)................16 Serrano v. Christ Hosp., 2007 WL 4462723 (N.J. Super Ct. App. Div. 2007). 17 xiv. Breach of Contract Terms............................................................................17 Gordon v. Matthew Bender & Co., 562 F.Supp. 1286 (N.D. Ill. 1983)...........17 Scribner v. Worldcom, Inc., 249 F.3d 902 (9th Cir. 2001)............................17 Pugh v. Sees Candies, Inc., 171 Cal. Rptr 917 (Cal. Ct. App. 1981).............17 xv. Employee Handbooks...................................................................................17 Woolley v. Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., 99 N.J. 284 (1985) ................................17 Bankey v. Storer Broadcasting Co., 432 Mich. 438 (1989)...........................18 Nicosia v. Wakefern Food Corp., 136 N.J. 401 (1994) ..................................18 xvi. Promissory Estoppel....................................................................................18 Pepsi-Cola General Bottlers, Inc. v. Woods, 440 N.E.2d 696 (Ind. App. 1982) ......................................................................................................................18 xvii. Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing...................................................19 Murphy v. American Home Products Corp., 448 N.E.2d 86 (N.Y. 1983)........19 Fortune v. National Cash Register, 364 N.E. 2d 1251 (Mass. 1977) ............19 C. Other Protections for Employment Security.....................................................20 xviii. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress; Whistleblower Statutes..........20 Dudewicz v. Norris-Schmid Inc., 443 Mich. 68 (1993)..................................20 Wilson v. Monarch Paper, 939 F.2d 1138 (5th Cir. 1991).............................20 xix. Wrongful Discharge Statutes.......................................................................20 Buck v. Billings Montana Chevrolet, 248 Mont. 276 (1991).........................20 xx. Property and Liberty Interests......................................................................20 Goetz v. Windsor School District, 698 F.2d 606 (2d Cir. 1983) ...................20 Mosrie v. Barry, 718 F. 2d 1151 (D.C. Cir. 1983) ........................................20 Plant Closings........................................................................................................21 2

xxi. Common Law and Statutory Responses......................................................21 Local 1330, United Steel Workers v. U.S. Steel Corp., 631 F.2d 1264 (6th Cir. 1980)......................................................................................................21 xxii. WARN ACT Litigation...................................................................................21 Carpenter Dist. Council of New Orleans v. Dillard Dept. Stores, Inc., 15 F.3d 1275 (5th Cir. 1994)......................................................................................21 Pena v. American Meat Packing Corp., 362 F.3d 418 (7th Cir. 2004) ..........21 Leaving a Job.........................................................................................................22 xxiii. Breach of Express Terms...........................................................................22 Handicapped Childrens Educ. Bd. v. Lukaszewski, 332 N.W. 2d 774 (Wis. 1983).............................................................................................................22 xxiv. Breach of Implied Terms............................................................................22 Mercer Mgmt. Consulting, Inc. v. Wilde, 920 F. Supp. 219 (D.D.C. 1996)....22 III. Alternative Dispute Resolution.................