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  • Prof. Dr.-Ing., Dipl.-Phys. Joachim Schmidt

    eMobility Workshop

    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University NMMU, Port Elizabeth

    South Africa 25. November 2015

    Recycling of Electric Cars

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Contents

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 1

    1 Recycling loops and environment protection

    2 Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    3 Electric vehicles

    5 Recycling of Electromotors

    4 Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    6 Recycling of power units

    7 Recycling of Li-Ion-Batteries

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Contents

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 2

    1 Recycling loops and environment protection

    2 Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    3 Electric vehicles

    5 Recycling of Electromotors

    4 Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    6 Recycling of power units

    7 Recycling of Li-Ion-Batteries

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    3

    Preparation of

    raw material

    Recycling Loops

    Resources Production Use End of life product

    Post Production

    RecyclingPost Industrial

    RecyclingRe use

    Post Consumer Recycling

    Landfill Mining

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    4

    Why recycling?

    Preservation of material resources

    Preservation of energy resources

    Reduction of waste

    Reduction of pollutions

    Reduction of emissions

    Ensuring the availability of special materials

    (Rare Earth metals, Conflict minerals,..)

    Ore, Oil, Minerals,

    Oil, Natural Gas, Uranium

    Dysprosium, Terbium, Gold, Coltan

    (Tantalium), Gallium, Indium,

    Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxides,

    Methane,

    Dangerous Waste, Sludges, Acids,

    Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Dioxins,

    Furans,

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Contents

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 5

    1 Recycling loops and environment protection

    2 Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    3 Electric vehicles

    5 Recycling of Electromotors

    4 Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    6 Recycling of power units

    7 Recycling of Li-Ion-Batteries

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    6

    Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    ELVs

    Dismantling workshop Shredder plant Post shredder technologies

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    End of Life Vehicles directive (ELV Legislation):

    Recyclability rate: 85 %

    Recoverability rate: 95 %

    Maximum 60 g Pb before Shredder operation

    In Diskussion: Dismantling of 17 kg electronics before Shredder operation

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    2

    Status Quo of Automobile Recycling

    ELVs

    Dismantling workshop Shredder plant Post shredder technologies

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Battery, Airbag-dismantling/ -controlled demolition

    Tyres, Drainage, Spare parts

    Treatment operations for depollution

    Dismantling of parts to promote recycling (Plastics, glass, katalyst)

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    3

    Status Quo of Automobile Recycling

    ELVs

    Dismantling workshop Shredder plant Post shredder technologies

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Magnet separator => Ferrous metals

    Sorting by hand

    Eddy current separator => Nonferrous metals

    Swim sink plant

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    4

    Status Quo of Automobile Recycling

    ELVs

    Dismantling workshop Shredder plant Post shredder technologies

    Product for feedstock recycling or energy recovery

    Ferrous and Non-ferrous metals

    Fluff (for the drying of sludge)

    Mineral product for remelters (Shredder sand)

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Contents

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 7

    1 Recycling loops and environment protection

    2 Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    3 Electric vehicles

    5 Recycling of Electromotors

    4 Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    6 Recycling of power units

    7 Recycling of Li-Ion-Batteries

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Unusual features at electric vehicles

    Battery

    Trend: Lithium ion battery

    DC/AC Voltage transducer

    Battery charger

    Electromotor

    Trend: Three-phase current

    synchronous motor with

    permanent magnets from NdFeB

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Car body lightweight construction materials

    8

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Electric Vehicles and Car body materials

    E-up!

    BMW i3

    Tesla

    Twizy

    Source: Wikipedia

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Fe Steel

    Mg Magnesium

    CFK texture

    GFK

    Al Aluminium

    Plastic

    9

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Operation and construction of an electromotor - Synchronous motor

    (inside runner)

    Stator with magnets excited

    electrically

    Rotor with permanent magnets

    from neodymium iron boron alloy

    Nd2Fe14B (Sinter material)60 70 % Fe

    28 35 % Rare Earth Metals REM

    1- 2 % Boron

    0 - 4 % Cobalt

    Magnetically hard material (high

    residual magnetism and high

    magnetic field strength)

    Temperature stability by

    Dysprosium or Terbium

    Corrosion resistance by cobalt

    1

    2 1

    2

    4

    3

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Nd Neodymium Dy Dysprosium Te Terbium

    Co CobaltFe Steel

    10

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Power unit from Electric Vehicles

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Au Gold Ag Silver Cu Copper

    Ga Gallium In Indium Ge Germanium Ta Tantalum

    11

    DC/DC voltage transducer

    DC/AC voltage transducer Three-phase motor

    Auxiliary

    units

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Operation and construction of a Li-Ion-battery

    Ve-

    Porous graphite structure

    on Copper collector

    -+

    Li-Metal oxide in Layer strukture

    (LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, Li4Ti5O12,)

    Electrolyte made of lithium salts with solvent

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

    Cu Copper Ni Nickel Co Cobalt Mn Mangan Li Lithium C Graphite

    12

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Present recycling quotas for different metals

    Source: Project OPTUM

    > 50 %

    > 25 50 %

    > 10 -25 %

    1 -10 %

    < 1 % %

    Cu Copper Au Gold Ag Silver Pt PlatinumPd Palladium

    Ru Rutherium

    Ga Gallium In Indium Ge Germanium Tb Terbium

    Pr Praseodymium Nd Neodymium Dy DysprosiumOnly Post

    Production

    Recycling

    (China)

    Sn TinPb Lead Al Aluminium

    Zn Zinc

    Well established

    recycling loops

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 13

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    Contents

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences 14

    1 Recycling loops and environment protection

    2 Present post consumer recycling for ELVs

    3 Electric vehicles

    5 Recycling of Electromotors

    4 Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    6 Recycling of power units

    7 Recycling of Li-Ion-Batteries

  • Recycling of Electric Cars, eMobility Workshop 25. November 2015

    15

    Improvement of the current Automobile Recycling for Electric Vehicles

    Electric ELVs

    Dismantling workshop Shredder plant Post shredder technologies

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt, Faculty for Automotive Engineering, Ostfalia University of applied Sciences

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