emerging leadership in developing quality oers

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  1. 1. Emerging Leadership in Developing Quality OERs EDDE 804: Leadership and Project Management in Distance Education Presentation March 7, 2016 Matthew Bingley and Rosemarri Klamn
  2. 2. Presentation Content Part I The Problem: Lack of Quality OER in the Developing World Part II Emerging leaders and the Capabilities Approach Part III Strategic Considerations Part IV The MOOC
  3. 3. Part I: The Problem Quality education is one that develops whatever capabilities society and individuals have reason to valuepaying attention not only to the means for realizing a quality education but to the cultural norms and values that either enable or stifle the development of these capabilities for different groups of disadvantaged learners Tikly & Barrett, 2005, p. 19)
  4. 4. The Context Nations in the developing world often show A lack of educational resources Low rates of educational enrollment and adult literacy Inability to develop human capital
  5. 5. Open Educational Resources In 2012 UNESCO published the Paris OER Declaration which recommends that nations promote the development and use of OER to address educational needs in developing countries build the infrastructure to enable use of OER in educational institutions (Source: http://bit.ly/1bwsVPU)
  6. 6. The Problem with OER However, the availability of OER in itself is insufficient to address these issues because Lack of teacher training to find and use OER Difficulty adapting OER Varying quality of OER Barriers of culture and language Difficulties accessing OER with technology
  7. 7. Our Solution We propose developing a MOOC to train educators to find, use, and generate OER.. taking into consideration the potential pitfalls and benefits of MOOCs and adapting learning to the local context
  8. 8. Part II: Emergent Leadership Transformational Leadership Distributed Leadership Shared Leadership HolisticLeadership Servant Leadership Collaborative Leadership Emergent Leadership Authentic Leadership Vision Influence Trust
  9. 9. Social Justice Approach to Quality Education Social Justice Approach to Quality Education based on Frasers Social Justice Framework (2008) and Sens Capability Approach (1999) Tikly & Barretts (2009) Social Justice, Capabilities and the Quality of Education in Low Income Countries Sens notion of Person (fully realized capabilities) Frasers Dimension of Recognition (all individuals have access) Frasers Dimension of Redistribution (access to resources) Frasers Dimension of Participation (in society)
  10. 10. Leadership Theory Leadership across the continuum from global, community,institutions, and educators (individual) Emergent Leadership: behavior-based, unassigned, leadership in virtual or dispersed (over time, space, and area) environments where leaders emerge within or across (the) team or organization Qualities include ability to conceptualize new methods or approaches, initiate new ideas within their sphere of influence, operate within and across political, symbolic, or structural frameworks (Bolman & Deal, 2003), and balance internal and external factors (Portugal, 2006) Challenges include being accepted as an informal rather than formal leader (Misoiolek & Heckman, 2005), being accepted by their appointed leader as informal leader, and balancing relational and task-related facets of their respective roles
  11. 11. Leadership in Developing Quality Education Materials Global United Nations UNESCO Community (Africa) TESSA FAWE Commonwealth of Learning Institutions NTU (Singapore) NSU (Florida) Educators Individual faculty/ researchers Tikly & Barrett Portugal Liyanagunawardena, Williams & Adams Emergent Leaders across Diverse Organizations
  12. 12. Part III: The Strategy Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe Abraham Lincoln However the beautiful the strategy, you should look occasionally at results Winston Churchill Do not wait for leaders; do it alone, person to person. Be faithful in small things because it is in them that your strength lies. -- Mother Teresa, religious sister
  13. 13. Strategic Considerations Pitfalls Richters concern that education alone is not solution Issues of language, customizability Benefits Creation of more OER that benefit local populations Training and development of teachers in local contexts Intercultural dialogue adapting this MOOC that anyone can access
  14. 14. Strategic Considerations Minimize cost Open source materials and freeware Google Drive, Google Sites Wikispaces Open Learning Management Systems such as Moodle or Dokeos OER such as Wikieducator, MERLOT, TESSA Distance Reach teachers in different developing contexts Analogous projects like Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) use in-person facilitators to develop OER collaboratively with on-site educators
  15. 15. Strategic Considerations Pedagogy Connectivism because we are using a MOOC to reach those who can make use of it Constructivism because we are trying to instill in learners the skills needed to develop resources meaningful in their local contexts Culture Differences in language, backgrounds, digital infrastructure, and cultural norms may be an issue Instructors can learn from this MOOC and adapt the ideas to their own needs and local contexts Local teachers can become cultural translators who can adapt OERs to their needs
  16. 16. Part IV: The MOOC Image source: http://www.wage-organisation.com/benefit/global-network/
  17. 17. Course Outline Module Objectives Blooms Taxonomy Identifying OER To define different types of OER To articulate how they would be useful Understanding, Remembering Finding OER To locate different kinds of OER To evaluate OER Applying Adapting OER To select OER which may be useful To articulate objectives for using OER Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating Creating OER To find useful tools for building OER To design and develop OER Creating Sharing OER To share OER with others To give and receive feedback on OER Analyzing, Evaluating
  18. 18. Activities and Community Module Activities Community building Identifying OER Short presentation and forum Introductions forum Finding OER Short presentation, followed by an assignment to find potentially useful OER in various databases. The focus in the forum this week will be on sharing the found resources and discussing their usefulness. Sharing found OER with others Adapting OER Short presentation followed by an exercise articulating a need for an OER (such as a lesson, an activity, a curriculum plan, etc.), to be shared in the forum. Sharing the assessment of local needs and concerns. Creating OER Short presentation on finding resources that may be useful. Activity outlining or drafting a possible OER. Results shared in forum. Posting drafts in forum for feedback and discussion. Developing a final form of an OER. Sharing OER Sharing the created OER in the forum for feedback from other participants. Showing their OERs to others; commenting on others' OER
  19. 19. The problem is one of training educators to find, adapt, and create locally relevant OER The strategy is to employ a MOOC to teach these skills using free/open resources whenever possible Emergent Leadership informs this approach as do notions of sustainability and social justice Summary and Conclusion
  20. 20. Questions? 1. I thought it interesting that both presentations tonight seemed to address issues where learners are adapting to another culture in one way or another. As a conversation starter I'd love to hear any thoughts others have on this issue? 2. What other forms of leadership seem applicable to strengthening the quality of educational materials? 3. Marc has asked if there is a leadership equivalent for connectivism. AK mentioned emergent, complex, distributed and Susan argued that George and Stephen would consider that all leadership theories could be consistent with connectivism. What do you think?
  21. 21. References Alexander, Kamenetz, Schroeder, & De Rosa. 2014). . Ally, M. & Samaka, M., 2013. Open education resources and mobile technology to narrow the learning divide. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(2), pp.1427 United Nations. (2014). Development Policy and Analysis Division. Hatakka, M., (2009). Build it and they will come?-Inhibiting factors for reuse of open content in developing countries. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 37(5), 1-16. Ivins, T. (2011). Localization of open educational resources (OER) in Nepal: Strategies of Himalayan knowledge-workers. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. Liyanagunawardena, T., Williams, S., and Adams, A. (2013). The impact and reach of MOOCs: a developing countries perspective. E-Learningeuropa.info. University of Reading. Maturing of the MOOC, 2013) (http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/ldc/ldc_criteria
  22. 22. References Misiolek,N.I., & Heckman, R. (2005). "Patterns of Emergent Leadership in Virtual Teams", HICSS, 2005, 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2005, pp. 49a, doi:10.1109/HICSS.2005.486 Portugal, L.M. 2006.Emerging Leadership Roles in Distance Education: Current State of Affairs and Forecasting Future Trends. Retrieved February 22, 2016 from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall2006/portugal93.htm Richter, T. & McPherson, M., 2012. Open educational resources: education for the world? Distance education, 33(2), pp.201219. Thakrar, J., Wolfenden, F. & Zinn, D., 2009. Harnessing open educational resources to the challenges of teacher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The International Review of Research in