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  • Emerging Contaminants & Aquatic Impacts in

    San Francisco Bay

    Rebecca Sutton, Ph.D. San Francisco Estuary Institute

    January 11th, 2017

  • Goal: Collect data, communicate information about water quality to support management decisions





    Innovative Partnership Celebrating our 25th year!

  • Nonylphenol & Nonylphenol Ethoxylates: Environmental Detections

    SF Bay 2009-2010 Klosterhaus et al. 2013

    4-NP: ND - 73 ng/L Water



    4-NP: 22-86 ng/g dw 4-NP1EO: 4-40 ng/g dw

    4-NP2EO: ND-19 ng/g dw

    4-NP: 41 ng/L

    4-NP: 506-1690 ng/L 4-NP1EO: 1220-1760 ng/L 4-NP2EO: 1690-2610 ng/L

    Puget Sound 2013-2014 Meador et al. 2016

    DATA GAP: Other Members of NPE Family

  • Sensitive species: Barnacle Balanus amphritite Reduced larval settlement: 60 ng/L NP

    Billinghurst et al. 1998

    Synergistic impacts: Estrogenicity (in vivo) APs/APEs and pesticides (bifenthrin, diuron)

    Schlenk et al. 2012

    Nonylphenol & Nonylphenol Ethoxylates: Additional Hazard Traits

    Moderate Concern for San Francisco Bay

  • Toilet paper Diehl et al. 2012 PVC water pipes Cheng et al. 2016 Polyethylene (food-grade) Hamlin et al. 2015 Plastic (as aquatic contaminant)

    Hirai et al. 2011: Plastic from North Pacific Central Gyre contains NP (6-1000 ng/g ww), likely additive

    Gassel et al. 2013: Plastic-mediated exposure to NP linked to fish from this Gyre

    Nonylphenol & Nonylphenol Ethoxylates: Consumer Product Sources

  • Detergent Cleaning surfactant Coatings Paints Resins Sealants Adhesives Caulk Printing ribbon component Food additive Food contact adhesives and coatings Pesticide ingredient Agriculture use for animals Fuel additive Plastic and polymer additive

    Hardener Lubricant Colorant or ink component Emulsifier Epoxy catalyst Rheology modifier Wetting agent Catalyst Processing aid Defoamer Antioxidant Corrosion inhibitor Paint stripper Paint primer

    EPA Proposes Significant New Use Rule October 1, 2014

    Nonylphenol & Nonylphenol Ethoxylates: Consumer Product Sources

  • Up to 40 ng/g dw

    Kerrigan et al. 2015

    Lower South Bay: 68 26 ng/L Sacramento River: 17 9 ng/L



    Triclosan: Recent Environmental Detections in SF Bay

    Effluent JUL 2011: 313 72 ng/L JAN 2012: 58 4 ng/L

    Hensley et al. 2015 Palo Alto Regional Water

    Quality Control Plant n = 4 each

    RMP unpublished data, 2008 Kerrigan et al. 2015

  • 0 1 2 3 4

    00 - 02

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    Sediment Concentration TCS (ng/g)






    South Bay Sediment Core

    0 5 10 15 20

    00 - 04

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    Sediment Concentration TCS (ng/g)






    Central Bay Sediment Core 2007







    produced in the 1960s

    produced in the 1960s

    Kerrigan et al. 2015


  • Triclosan: Key Data Gaps

    Methyl Triclosan

    Identified in SF Bay mussels via non-targeted analysis

    Special Study 2017: Triclosan and Methyl Triclosan in Small Fish

  • Chlorinated phosphates

    Triphenyl phosphate Plastic component Persistence and ecotoxicity Levels in SF Bay near PNEC Additional monitoring in 2017

    Other Chemicals of Concern: Phosphate Flame Retardants

  • Bisphenols 2017 Brominated azo dyes Poly- and perfluorinated substances Quaternary ammonium compounds Synthetic musk fragrance ingredients

    Non-targeted analysis

    Future Monitoring Priorities

  • References Billinghurst Z, Clare AS, Fileman T, McEvoy J, Readman J, Depledge MH. 1998. Inhibition of barnacle settlement by the environmental oestrogen 4-nonylphenol and the natural oestrogen 17 oestradiol. Mar Poll Bull 36:833-839. Cheng Y-C, Chen H-W, Chen W-L, Chen C-Y, Wang G-S. 2016. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol A in household water pipes made of different materials. Environ Mon Assess 188:562. Diehl J, Johnson SE, Xia K, West A, Tomanek L. 2012. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries. Chemosphere 87:490-497. Gassel M, Harwani S, Park JS, Jahn A. 2013. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 73:231-242. Hamlin HJ, Marciano K, Downs CA. 2015. Migration of nonylphenol from food-grade plastic is toxic to the coral reef fish species Pseudochromis fridmani. Chemosphere 139:223-228. Hensley RN, Kerrigan JF, Pang H, Erickson PR, Grandbois M, McNeill K, et al. 2015. Triclosan, chlorinated triclosan derivatives, and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) in wastewater effluents. Environ Sci Wat Res Technol 1:316. Hirai H, Takada H, Ogata Y, Yamashita R, Mizukawa K, Saha M, et al. 2011. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1683-1692. Kerrigan JF, Engstrom DR, Yee D, Sueper C, Erickson PR, Grandbois M, et al. 2015. Quantification of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs), triclosan, and related compounds in freshwater and coastal systems. PLoS One 10:e0138805. Klosterhaus SL, Grace R, Hamilton MC, Yee D. 2013. Method validation and reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and alkylphenols in surface waters, sediments, and mussels in an urban estuary. Environ Int 54:92-99. Meador JP, Yeh A, Young G, Gallagher EP. 2016. Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary. Environ Pollut 213:254-267. Schlenk D, Lavado R, Loyo-Rosales JE, Jones W, Maryoung L, Riar N, et al. 2012. Reconstitution studies of pesticides and surfactants exploring the cause of estrogenic activity observed in surface waters of the San Francisco Bay Delta. Environ Sci Technol 46:9106-9111.

    Emerging Contaminants & Aquatic Impacts in San Francisco BaySlide Number 2Nonylphenol & Nonylphenol Ethoxylates:Environmental DetectionsSlide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Triclosan:Recent Environmental Detections in SF BayTriclosanSlide Number 9Other Chemicals of Concern:Phosphate Flame RetardantsFuture Monitoring PrioritiesReferences


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