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Emerging Contaminants. Water Framework Directive. Taking Water Policy into the 21st Century Coordination of all measures drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocide s landfills water wasteotherpesticides bathing water industry water discharges. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Emerging Contaminants

  • Water Framework DirectiveTaking Water Policy into the 21st CenturyCoordination of all measures

    drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocides landfillswater wasteotherpesticidesbathing water industrywater discharges

  • Contaminants in the Water Cycle: soils as source and sink (filter, retention and transformation capacity) Integrated soil-water management

  • Inter-Compartment/Media Transport and Fate of Pollutants in the Water Cycle

  • Emerging ContaminantsDefinition: Previously unknown or unrecognized (mystery) pollutants. (Ignored Environmental Contaminants)

    Detective work called Environmental Forensics

    As any analytical chemist knows, what you see depends on what you look for (Lynn Roberts, Johns Hopkins University)

    Emerging contaminants are generally not included in the legislation (Non-priority Pollutants)

    Emerging Contaminants= Emerging Chemical Risks

    Emerging Issues and Short -Circuiting Risks

  • Emerging Contaminants: Continuum of RiskLong-established widely recognized risks, as POPs or PBT(persistent bioaccumulative toxicants)Unexpectedly growing/developing risks ( due to increasing consumption, as MTBE)Hidden, latent risks (previously unrecognized risk existing for some time, now recognized, as PPCPs)Future risks, currently not-existing risks (new generation of chemicals/drugs subjected to approval)

    (Adapted from C.G. Daughton, US EPA, Las Vegas)

  • Emerging Contaminants, US EPAS. Richardson, 2001

    Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) Analytes

    Pharmaceuticals

    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Algal toxins

    Cryptosporidium & Giardia

    Organotins

    MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl ether)

    DBPs (including NDMA)

    Perchlorate

    Arsenic

  • Emerging Contaminants (EU): Water Framework Directive and the Precautionary PrinciplePolybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)-Endocrine Disrupting Compounds-Alkylphenols- detergents, Phthalates Upcoming Priorities (Future Candidates for Monitoring) : PPCPs (Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products) Diclofenac,Ibuprofen, EDCs Veterinary pharmaceuticals for animal feeding MTBE and related compounds

  • EU adopted Strategy for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (March 30, 2000) (5257/00)URGENT NEED to establish monitoring programs and to assess hazards and risks of EDCEstablishment of PRIORITY LIST of substances, i.e., EU 32 priority substances within Water Framework Directive include EDC: Octylphenols, Nonylphenols and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)In the medium-long-term, EU Directives for EDC and identification of substitutesThe whole approach is to be based on PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE

  • PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS FOR HUMAN AND VETERINARY MEDICINEFrance, Italy, Spain ,(Germany) 300 (>600) T/year AntibioticsGermany, Ibuprofen, Aspirin more than 100 T/year VETERINARY DRUGS(1999) 1645 Tons of Antibiotics at the EU (European Federation of Animal Health) 275 Tons mixed with feed as growth promotors (in 1997, 1600 Tons)January 2006, EU ban Antibiotics as growth promotors70-80% of Drugs in fish farms, end up in the environmentEU level, 115 million pigs (208 million Tons manure)Pigs in Spain, from 16-21.4 millions (2010). Catalonia=8 million

    Pharmaceutical Compounds

  • Pharmaceuticals

    Considered as possible future CCL Drinking Water Contaminants (U.S. EPA):

    Estrogen Diclofenac (antirheumatic) Carbamazepine (antiepileptic) Chloramphenicol (antibiotic)

    Concern about introduction of these compounds into drinking water

    Possible estrogenic effects

    Research at U.S. EPA and EU on fate & effect

  • Wastewater treatment plantDrinking waterproductionManSedimentSewage sludgeGround waterSoilSurface waterEstuarine waterSedimentOceanwaterSedimentBiotaBiotaSurfactant usage(10 M.tons)

  • Directive 91/271/EEC ( 98/15/EEC )Urban Waste Water TreatmentTill year 2000, urban centres >15.000 inhabitants and till year 2005 urban centres >2000 inhabitants should have treatment of wastewatersConstruction of 40.000 treatment plants in EU (till year 2005)N & West Europe, 80-90 % of wastewater treated, S & East Europe, only 40-50 %More treatment plants higher production of sludge (increase from 5.5 to 8.3 millions tons from1992 to 2005)It is necessary to increase the capacity of collection systems and treatment 22% and 69%, respectively (from 1992 to 2005)37 cities of more than 150.000 inhabitants do not have treatment of wastewaters (Brighton, Portsmouth, Brussels, Milan, Toronto, Corua, Cadiz, Oporto, Costa Estoril)

  • PHTHALATE

  • Pharmaceutical compounds are produced and used in quantities that exceed hundred of metric tons annually.In France, Italy or Spain only the use of antibiotics is around 300T a year, but this amounts underestimate the total usage of pharmaceutical compounds many of which can be purchased without medical prescription as happens with a wide number of analgesic or anti-inflammatory drugs.In function of their usage and their metabolism variable concentrations of drugs or their secondary products are excreted and actually high concentrations are found in domestic wastewater and after wastewater treatment works variable concentration can reach natural waters.

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