emergent literacy within the balanced literacy framework: definitions, stages, strategies
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- Emergent Literacy within the Balanced Literacy Framework: Definitions, Stages, Strategies
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- Definition of Emergent Literacy: Marie Clay first used this term to describe literacy development during a stage in which children imitate and experiment with the forms and functions of print. Words Their Way, p.86 Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, Johnston
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- Teaching the Emergent Reader within the Balanced Literacy Framework A primary theory behind the Balanced Literacy Framework is that children can learn. If they are not learning, the teaching needs to be evaluated and adjusted. Children need to learn to be strategic thinkers who have a repertoire of problem solving skills when encountering new vocabulary, syntax or ideas.
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- Balanced Literacy 1. Understanding the purpose of literacy 2. Hear written language 3. Become aware of the sounds of language 4. Have many experiences working with written symbols 5. Explore words and learn how words work 6. Learn the conventions of print and how books work 7. Read and write continuous text to expand their knowledge about letters, words, sounds, and language 8. Become a strategic reader Adapted from http://www.primaryteachers.org/balanced_literacy.htm
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- Spelling Stages Emergent: Confuse words and drawings, use letter- like forms or random letters. Letter-Name: Substitute the letter of the alphabet that sounds the most like the sound. Within-Word: Confusing long vowel patterns but blends and diagraphs in place. Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S. Johnston, F. (2006). Words Their Way, Upper Saddle River: Pearson, Prentice Hall, pp. 11, 14, 16.
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- Reading Characteristics in the Pre- alphabetic Stage Pre-alphabetic phase Read books using picture cues Recognize selective cues in words such as an initial consonant or OO in Look Recognize logos such as McDonalds Recognize own name Semantically appropriate but orthographically inappropriate errors Increasing knowledge of different kinds of texts Adapted from Words Their Way, p. 17 and Brown, K. (2003). What do I say when they get stuck on a word? The Reading Teacher 56(8), 720-723.
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- Reading and Writing Activities for the Emergent Stage Read to students and encourage oral language activities. Model writing using dictations and charts Encourage pretend reading and writing Alphabet activities Finger pointing to words Encourage invented spelling Rhymes, dictations, simple pattern books Word Walls Charts with schedules & names of kids Teach high frequency words Adapted from Bear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, p.22.
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- Reading Characteristics in the Partial Alphabetic Stage Also called early Letter-Name Alphabetic Use context clues and context clues Uses names of letters for spelling Need to vocalize when reading Understand idea of systematic matches between sound and letters Overcame hurdle of matching stream of language to individual words and sounds Orthographically incorrect errors Adapted from Words Their Way, p. 17 and Brown, K. (2003). What do I say when they get stuck on a word? The Reading Teacher 56(8), 720-723.
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- Reading and Writing Activities in the Letter Name Stage Reading of lots of predictable text. Simple rhymes Record and re-read individuals dictations Word sorts of word families Personal readers Personal word banks Word hunts in favorite books Label pictures and diagrams Bear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, p.22.
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- List of Initial High Frequency Words for Kindergarten Readers Childs name I come me on To like up we A see this and Is the look go In my at here Am can
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- Concepts of Print Advanced by Marie Clay Children need to grasp: Top to bottom and left to right Orientation of text The correct formation of letters Clusters are called words First letters and last letters in a word Uppercase and lowercase letters Spacing of words Punctuation marks Adapted from Joy Drzyzga, Aperil H. Sellers, Sam Simon from http://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/impaticas/concepts--print-script.pdf
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- Categorization Activity 1)Take the characteristics provided about three early stages of literacy of phonemic awareness and sort into three developmentally appropriate groups of emergent, beginning early and late early. Discuss. 2)Take the characteristics provided about three early stages of literacy of phonological awareness and sort into three developmentally appropriate groups of emergent, beginning early and late early. Discuss.
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- McGill-Franzens Adaptation of Concepts of Print
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- Emergence of Writing The following four slides from Anne McGill- Franzens Kindergarten Literacy (2006) illustrate progressive growth in a childs writing over the course of a year. It is important to document these efforts through samples for a portfolio. McGill-Franzen provide a rubric for scoring work: drawing, copied or random letters, name only, words, sentences, and text.
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- Evolution of Emergent Writing
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- Evolution to Words
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- Evolution to Sentences
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- Evolution to Text
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- Activity: Discuss whether the writing sample in Slide 13 Evolution to Text demonstrates end of year proficiency. (From Dorn & Soffos) Generates topic for writing with or without teacher assistance. Uses ABC chart, letter book and name chart to support sound to letter match. Uses spaces between words consistently. Writes more letters with correct formation. Edits by crossing out letters. Hears and records most consonant letter sounds and some easy to hear vowels.
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- Changes over Time in Writing Behaviors from Dorn and Soffos Emergent BehaviorsBeginning EarlyLate Early Generates topic with teacher assistance Generates topics across genres w/o teacher Demonstrates an understanding of authors purpose Organizes ideas prior to drafting Draws pictures of key ideas on writing paper Organizes ideas and narrows focus Plans writing by drawing pictures or symbols in journal that represents an event or several loosely linked events Plans simple recount by drawing pictures to represent key ideas Uses a writing guide Plans recount by using words or phrases Plans informational writing by drawing pictures or symbols Plans informational explanatory writing by drawing pictures Plans and sorts information into categories Plans persuasive piece by drawing pictures or symbols Plans persuasive piece by drawing and discussing opinion on an idea or topic Plans persuasive piece by taking a stance on an idea or topic Rehearse message orally with teacher Rehearses message orally with teacher or peer Rehearses message orally
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- Key Components of Balanced Literacy Running records--evaluate, evaluate, evaluate Independent reading Guided Reading Group Leveled Books Word Sorts Holistic approach to the teaching of writing Teach strategic thinking about reading
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- Example of a Running Record
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- Leveled Texts A key component of Balanced Literacy in the Anderson County elementary setting is the use of leveled texts. Students progress through the texts as they gain more and more strategies for reading independently. Kindergarten students begin at a Level A (few words inferred by pictures) and progress to Level B (phrases heavily repeated and strong support from the illustrations) usually by the end of the year. See following slide (McGill- Franzen, p. 106).
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- Emergent to Fluent Reading Process Behaviors Directions: Categorize the characteristics in the envelope into three groups: Level A-C Level D-E Level F-G
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- Word Sorts Students categorize words with similar orthographic or conceptual features into groups. Advantages of active learning, synthetic approach, and increased exposure to the number of examples of words from the same family. Picture and concept sorts useful for the emergent stage. Bear, D., Invernezzi, M., Templeton, S. & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall
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- Mini-Lessons Barrentine describes successful mini-lessons as having the following characteristics: relevance and timeliness, time limited, child-centered materials, quality of teacher talk. The mini-lesson should be pertinent to what the students need to know now in order to become more effective readers. The mini-lesson should be a regular part of the classroom routine and should be short, no more than seven minutes. The discussion should be based on examples from a few books that the children appreciated. The teacher should use the mini-lesson to clearly describe the purpose of the lesson, demonstrate the procedure or strategy, and link the information to the students work. Barrentine, S. (1995). Reading mini-lessons: An instructional practice for meaning centered reading programs. Insights into Open Education 27 (1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED386702.pdf
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- Guided Reading Children are grouped
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