emergence of modern europe nationalism and imperialism in the nineteenth century

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  • Slide 1
  • Emergence of Modern Europe Nationalism and Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
  • Slide 2
  • Overview of Major Topics Congress of Vienna (1814 1815) Congress of Vienna (1814 1815) Modern Political and Cultural Ideologies Modern Political and Cultural Ideologies Mid-Century Revolutionary Movements Mid-Century Revolutionary Movements Realpolitik The State Triumphant Realpolitik The State Triumphant Western Imperialism Western Imperialism
  • Slide 3
  • Congress of Vienna
  • Slide 4
  • Historical Context Historical Context Objectives Objectives Balance of PowerBalance of Power Avoid Future WarsAvoid Future Wars Methods Methods Restoration of MonarchyRestoration of Monarchy Distribution of LandDistribution of Land Congress SystemCongress System Prince Clemons von Metternich - Leader Prince Clemons von Metternich - Leader Prince Clemons von Metternich
  • Slide 5
  • Approach to Balance of Power France France Restoration of Bourbon Dynasty Territorial Boundaries of 1792 Restoration of Bourbon Dynasty Territorial Boundaries of 1792 No War Reparations No War Reparations Congress System Meet to Settle Disputes Great Powers Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain Added Territory as compensation Within Europe Colonies
  • Slide 6
  • Important Decisions France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon The Dutch Republic was united with the Austrian Netherlands to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange. Norway and Sweden were joined under a single ruler Switzerland was declared neutral Russia got Finland and effective control over the new kingdom of Poland Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine Province. Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice) Britain got several strategic colonial territories, and they also gained control of the seas. France was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII. Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
  • Slide 7
  • Europe in 1815
  • Slide 8
  • Significance of Congress of Vienna Conservative Response to Revolutions Conservative Response to Revolutions No Major Wars until 1914 No Major Wars until 1914 Established Foundation for Strong Central State Established Foundation for Strong Central State
  • Slide 9
  • Modern Ideologies
  • Slide 10
  • Liberalism Twin Concepts Twin Concepts Equality & LibertyEquality & Liberty Economic Liberalism: Laissez Faire Economic Liberalism: Laissez Faire Two ThinkersTwo Thinkers Mill Limits of Personal LibertyMill Limits of Personal Liberty Bentham Greatest Good for Greatest NumberBentham Greatest Good for Greatest Number
  • Slide 11
  • Socialism French Utopian Socialism - Economic Planning by State (National Government) French Utopian Socialism - Economic Planning by State (National Government) Rights of WorkersRights of Workers Restrict Ownership of Private PropertyRestrict Ownership of Private Property Social Justice Housing & Needs of PoorSocial Justice Housing & Needs of Poor Marxism Socialism Marxism Socialism Structure of Historical DeterminismStructure of Historical Determinism Revolution, Not PlanningRevolution, Not Planning Pierre-Joseph Proudhon What is Property?
  • Slide 12
  • Nationalism Defining Principle Defining Principle Peoples had own genius and cultural unityPeoples had own genius and cultural unity Common language, History, Territory Common language, History, Territory Political Basis: Liberalism Political Basis: Liberalism Extension of Universal Manhood Suffrage: Government of the PeopleExtension of Universal Manhood Suffrage: Government of the People People Shared Common InterestsPeople Shared Common Interests Advanced in 19th Century by Advanced in 19th Century by Industrialization & Urbanization Critical Mass of PeopleIndustrialization & Urbanization Critical Mass of People EducationEducation Imagined Communities Emotionally Charged Symbols & Ceremonies Imagined Communities Emotionally Charged Symbols & Ceremonies Ambiguous Ambiguous Liberal & DemocraticLiberal & Democratic Ideas of National & Cultural SuperiorityIdeas of National & Cultural Superiority
  • Slide 13
  • Romanticism Revolt Against Enlightenment Revolt Against Enlightenment Advocated Feeling, Freedom, Natural Goodness Advocated Feeling, Freedom, Natural Goodness Expressed in Art, Music, Literature Expressed in Art, Music, Literature Infused into Political Ideals of Democratic Revolutions Infused into Political Ideals of Democratic Revolutions
  • Slide 14
  • Mid Century Revolutionary Movements (1830, 1848)
  • Slide 15
  • Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 Causes Causes Liberal & Radical Response to Conservative Forces of Restoration Liberal & Radical Response to Conservative Forces of Restoration Economic Depression Impact of Industrialization Economic Depression Impact of Industrialization Display of Liberalism, Socialism, Nationalism and Romanticism Display of Liberalism, Socialism, Nationalism and Romanticism Forces Based on Liberalism, Nationalism and Socialism Forces Based on Liberalism, Nationalism and Socialism Coalitions of Have Nots Middle Class Merchants and Working Class Artisans and Workers Coalitions of Have Nots Middle Class Merchants and Working Class Artisans and Workers Limited to No Gains Limited to No Gains Impact Impact National Movements throughout Most of European Nations National Movements throughout Most of European Nations Revolutionaries of Have Nots Middle Class Merchants Working Class Artisans and Skilled/Unskilled Workers Working Class Artisans and Skilled/Unskilled Workers Consequences No Immediate Gains Coalitions Did Not Work Signaled to State a Need to Meet Demands of Revolutionaries Surge of Nationalism
  • Slide 16
  • Revolutions in Europe 1830, 1848
  • Slide 17
  • Examples of Change in Great Britain Examples of Change Great Britain Examples of Change Great Britain Context: Corn Laws of 1815 Context: Corn Laws of 1815 Provisions Gave Voice to the People:Provisions Gave Voice to the People: House of Commons The Legislative BodyHouse of Commons The Legislative Body Redistribution of Representation to Urban, Industrialized AreasRedistribution of Representation to Urban, Industrialized Areas Increased Suffrage by 50% - Extended to Middle Class & FarmersIncreased Suffrage by 50% - Extended to Middle Class & Farmers Regulated Working Conditions for Workers Regulated Working Conditions for Workers Impact on Great Britain Escaped Revolution in 1848Impact on Great Britain Escaped Revolution in 1848
  • Slide 18
  • Examples of Change Austrian Empire - Nationalism Principle: Nationalism Principle: Nationalism Peoples had own genius and cultural unity Common language, History, Territory Peoples of Hungary Demanded National Autonomy, Full Civil Liberties, Universal Suffrage Peoples of Hungary Demanded National Autonomy, Full Civil Liberties, Universal Suffrage Problem: Could Not Gain Unity Among Other Ethnic Groups in Eastern Section of Austrian Empire Problem: Could Not Gain Unity Among Other Ethnic Groups in Eastern Section of Austrian Empire Partial Sharing of Political Rule Partial Sharing of Political Rule Foreshadows Balkan Wars & World War I Foreshadows Balkan Wars & World War I 1815 1848
  • Slide 19
  • Age of Nationalism Realpolitik The Making of an Emperor The Making of an Emperor
  • Slide 20
  • Characteristics of Nationalism (1850 1914) Realpolitik -Realpolitik - No Longer Lofty Vision Based on LiberalismNo Longer Lofty Vision Based on Liberalism Hard-Headed Realism Based on Economic, Political, and Military PowerHard-Headed Realism Based on Economic, Political, and Military Power The State is Above All The State is Above All Conservative Response to Passions of Liberalism & Socialism Conservative Response to Passions of Liberalism & Socialism Many MasksMany Masks Liberal and Democratic United StatesLiberal and Democratic United States Flourish in Dictatorial States Conservative, Fascists, Communist Flourish in Dictatorial States Conservative, Fascists, Communist Relationship Between Leader and People By Passes Congressional Representation Relationship Between Leader and People By Passes Congressional Representation
  • Slide 21
  • Model France Authoritarian Nationalism of Louis Napoleon III (1848 1871) Authoritarian Nationalism of Louis Napoleon III (1848 1871) Elected by Universal Manhood Suffrage Elected by Universal Manhood Suffrage Restricted Rights of Assembly Restricted Rights of Assembly Hereditary Emperor Hereditary Emperor Leader Served the PeopleLeader Served the People Managed EconomyManaged Economy Workers Rights Workers Rights Actions Defused Impact of Socialists & Liberals Actions Defused Impact of Socialists & Liberals
  • Slide 22
  • Model of Realpolitik: Unification of Germany Series of Small States Series of Small States Prussia Most Dominate German Confederatio n 1830 Industrializa tion & Trade - Zollverin Prussia Most Dominate German Confederatio n 1830 Industrializa tion & Trade - Zollverin
  • Slide 23
  • Prussia Unify Germany Agenda: Agenda: Unify German States with Prussia as Leader Unify German States with Prussia as Leader Decrease Power of Austria in Trade and Inf

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