electrical grounding techniques

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Electrical grounding techniques

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Ground Resistance Principles, Testing, Techniques & ApplicationsTable of Contents

LEM Instruments Palmersstrasse 2 A-2351 Wr. Neudorf Tel: +43/2236/691-0 Fax: +43/2236/691 415 email: lno@lem.com http://www.lem.com

Why Ground ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

What is a ground and what does it do ?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ground Resistance Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Ground Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Resistance Testing - Soil Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Soil Resistivity 4 - Pole Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Resisting Testing 3 - Pole Fall of Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 4 5 7 8

Publication A 99415 E Printed in Austria

Ground Resistance Testing Existing Systems Selective Clamp - On . . . . . . . .

Ground Resistance Testing Existing Systems "Stakeless" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Ground Resistance Testing 2 - Pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Ground Impedance Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Measuring Ground Resistance at Substations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Measuring Ground Resistance at Central Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Measuring Ground Resistance at Cellular Sites/Microwave and Radio Towers 13 Measuring Ground Resistance at Remote Switching Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Measuring Ground Resistance for Lightning Protection Commercial/Industrial 15 Ground Testing Instruments - UNILAP GEO / GEO X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ground Testing Instruments - SATURN GEO / Handy GEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

hy Ground ?

There are a number of good reasons to ground but primary among them is to ensure personnel safety. The following agencies and organizations all have recommendations and / or standards for grounding, to ensure that personnel safety is being protected. The organizations that provide guidelines/rules for grounding are: The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Mine Safety Health Administration (MSHA), Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA), Telecommunications Industry Standard (TIA) and others. Good grounding is not only for the safety of personnel but to provide for the protection of plants and equipment. A good ground system will improve the reliability of equipment and reduce the likelihood of damage as a result of lightning or fault currents.

Ground resistance valuesThere is a good deal of confusion as to what constitutes a good ground and what the ground resistance value needs to be. Ideally a ground should be of zero ohms resistance. The NEC has stated that "A single electrode consisting of a rod, pipe, or plate which does not have a resistance to ground of 25 ohms or less shall be augmented by one additional electrode...". Once you have added the supplemental ground you have met the requirement for the NEC. This does not mean that the value of the ground now has to be 25 ohms or less. The ground resistance values objectives vary from industry to industry.

What is a ground and what does it do ?The NEC, National Electrical Code defines a ground as: "a conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth." When talking about grounding it is actually two different subjects, earth grounding and equipment grounding. Earth grounding is an intentional connection from a circuit conductor usually the neutral to a ground electrode placed in the earth. Equipment grounding is to ensure that operating equipment within a structure is properly grounded. These two grounding systems are required to be kept separate except for a connection between the two systems to prevent differences in potential from a possible flashover from a lightning strike. The purpose of a ground besides the protection of people plants and equipment is to provide a safe path for the dissipation of Fault Currents, Lightning Strikes, Static Discharges, EMI and RFI signals and Interference.

Telecommunications industry has often used 5 ohms or less as their value for grounding and bonding. The goal in ground resistance values is to achieve the lowest ground resistance value possible that makes sense economically and physically.

1

round Electrodes

Sphere of influence:

consist of three basic components:1 ground conductor 2 the connection/bonding of the conductor

to the ground electrode3 the ground electrode itself

The resistance of a ground e l e c tr o de ha s 3 ba si c components:A) The resistance of the ground electrode itself and the connections to the electrode. B) The contact resistance of the surrounding earth to the electrode.

C) The resistance of the surrounding body of earth around the ground electrode.

2

Multiple ground electrodes - InteractionA) The resistance of the ground electrode and it's connection is generally very low, ground rods are generally made of highly conductive/ low resistance material such as copper of copper clad. B) The contact resistance of the earth to the electrode: The Bureau of Standards has shown this resistance to be almost negligible providing that the ground electrode is free from paint, grease etc. and that the ground electrode is in firm contact with the earth. C) The resistance of the surrounding earth: The ground electrode is surrounded by earth which is made up of concentric shells all having the same thickness. Those shells closest to the ground electrode have the smallest amount of area resulting in the greatest degree of resistance. Each subsequent shell incorporates a greater area resulting in lower resistance. This finally reaches a point where the additional shells offer little resistance to the ground surrounding the ground electrode. The NEC specifies that the ground electrode shall be installed so that it is at least 2,4 m in length and in contact with the soil. There are 3 variables that affect the resistance of a ground electrode: 1. The ground Itself 2. The length/depth of the ground electrode 3. Diameter of the ground electrode. Increasing the diameter of the ground electrode has very little effect in lowering the resistance. For example you could double the diameter of a ground electrode and your resistance would only decrease by as much as 10 %. One very effective way of lowering resistance is to drive ground electrodes deeper. Because the earth is in layers resistivity changes and varies considerably on the layer and the depth within that layer. Soil is not consistent in its resistivity but highly unpredictable. With that in mind it is of critical importance that when installing the ground electrode that it is below the frost line so that the resistance to ground will not be greatly increased by the freezing of the surrounding soil. Generally speaking by doubling the length of the ground electrode you can reduce the resistance level by an additional 40 %. There are occasions where it is physically impossible to drive ground rods deeper, areas that are composed of rock, granite etc. In these instances alternative methods such as grounding cement are a viable alternative. To assist you in installing a ground rod that will meet your specific resistance requirements you can use the table of ground resistances on page 5. Remember this is to be used only as a rule of thumb, because soil is in layers and is rarely homogenous, so the resistance values will vary greatly. Another system to lowering ground resistance is through the use of multiple ground electrodes. In this system more than one electrode is driven into the ground and connected in parallel to lower the resistance. Each ground electrode has it's own sphere of influence and for additional electrodes to be effective the spacing of additional rods needs to be at least equal to the depth of the driven rod. Without proper spacing of the ground electrodes the spheres of influence will intersect and the lowering of the resistance will be minimal and of little value.

3

ypes of Ground Systems

There are two types of grounding systems, simple and complex. Simple consist of a single ground electrode driven into the ground. The use of a single ground electrode is the most common form of grounding and can be found outside your home or place of business. Complex grounding systems consist of multiple ground rods connected, mesh or grid networks, ground plates and ground loops. These systems are typically installed at power generating substations, central offices and cellsites.

Ground Resistance Testing- Soil Resistivity

Why measure soil resistivity?The reason for measuring soil resistivity when selecting a location for a sub-station or central office is to find a location that has the lowest possible resistance. Once a site has been selected, measuring the soil resistivity will give you the information necessary to design and build a ground field that will meet your ground resistance requirements. There are a number of factors affectin g s oil r esi stivi ty, soil composition being one of them.

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