eLearning and Digital Publishing

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eLearning and Digital Publishing

Computer Supported Cooperative WorkVolume 33 Series Editor: Richard Harper Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom Associate Editors: Dan Diaper, School of Computing Science, Middlesex University, United Kingdom Colston Sanger, Middlesex University, Global Campus, United Kingdom Editorial Board Members: Frances Aldrich, University of Sussex, United Kingdom Liam Bannon, University of Limerick, Ireland Moses Boudourides, University of Patras, Greece Graham Button, University of Hallam, Sheffield, United Kingdom Prasun Dewan, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA Jonathan Grudin, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, USA Bo Helgeson, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden John Hughes, Lancaster University, United Kingdom Keiichi Nakata, International University in Germany, Bruchsal, Germany Leysia Palen, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA David Randall, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom Kjeld Schmidt, IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark Abigail Sellen, Microsoft Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom Yvonne Rogers, University of Sussex, United Kingdom

eLearning and Digital PublishingEdited by

Hsianghoo Steve ChingCity University of Hong Kong, China

Paul W. T. PoonUniversity of Macau, Macau, China


Carmel McNaughtThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.


1-4020-3640-X (HB) 978-1-4020-3640-8 (HB) 1-4020-3651-5 (e-book) 978-1-4020-3651-4 (e-book)

Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. www.springer.com

Printed on acid-free paper

All Rights Reserved 2006 H. S. Ching, P. W. T. Poon and C. McNaught No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from Hewlett-Packard, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Printed in the Netherlands.


To our colleagues in many countries who share the vision of using technology to open access to learning for the students of the world To valued colleagues in the Ministry of Education in Taiwan and Feng Chia University in Taiwan who supported this vision


List of Contributors List of Figures and Tables Acknowledgements 1. Issues in Organizing and Disseminating Knowledge in the 21st Century Carmel McNaught, Paul W. T. Poon and Hsianghoo Steve Ching PART ONE: FOCUS ON ELEARNING AND DISTRIBUTED EDUCATION 2. The Provision of Non-Local Programmes in Hong Kong: The Experience of the Open University of Hong Kong Y. H. Lui 3. The Synergy Between Information Literacy and eLearning Carmel McNaught 4. Changing the Mindset: From Traditional On-campus and Distance Education to Online Teaching and Learning Susan McKnight 5. Developing and Managing a Professional Development Distance-Learning Programme: The ARL/OLMS Online Lyceum Karen A. Wetzel

ix xi xv







viii 6. Learning to Learn in Networked Environments: A Focus on Orientation Philippa Levy PART TWO: FOCUS ON DIGITAL PUBLISHING AND ELECTRONIC CONTENT 7. Trends in Electronic Publishing Chennupati K. Ramaiah, Schubert Foo and Heng Poh Choo 8. Copy and Paste or Scholarly Communication? Changing the Balance Point Hsianghoo Steve Ching and Lai Chu Lau 9. Believing Six Impossible Things Before Breakfast: Electronic Resource Collection Management in a Consortial Environment Arnold Hirshon PART THREE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GROWTH OF KNOWLEDGE AND SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION 10. Digital Publishing and the Knowledge Process Colin Steele 11. Development of, and Trends in, Scholarly Communication in China Jinwei Yan and Zheng Liu 12. Global Changes in Scholarly Communication Suzanne E. Thorin Glossary of Acronyms Subject Index








221 241 243

List of Contributors

CHENNUPATI K. Ramaiah is an Assistant Professor in the School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 31 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637718. ASRamaiah@ntu.edu.sg Hsianghoo Steve CHING is a Professor and University Librarian at the City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Ave., Yau Yat Chuen, Kowloon, Hong Kong. hsching@cityu.edu.hk Schubert FOO is Professor and Vice Dean in the School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 31 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637718. vd-sci@ntu.edu.sg HENG Poh Choo is a graduate student from the Division of Information Studies, School of Communication & Information, Nanyang Technological University, 31 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637718. hengpc@singnet.com.sg Arnold HIRSHON is Executive Director of NELINET (New England Library and Information Network), 153 Cordaville Road, Suite 200, Southborough MA 01772, USA. ahirshon@nelinet.net Lai Chu LAU is an Assistant Librarian in the Law Section of the City University of Hong Kong Library, Tat Chee Ave. Yau Yat Chuen, Kowloon, Hong Kong. lblclau@cityu.edu.hk Philippa LEVY is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Information Studies at the University of Shefeld, Western Bank, Shefeld, S10 2TN, UK. p.levy@shefeld.ac.uk Y. H. LUI is Professor and Director of the Li Ka Shing Institute of Professional and Continuing Education at the Open University of Hong



List of Contributors

Kong, 4/F Shun Tak Centre, 168200 Connaught Road Central, Hong Kong. yhlui@ouhk.edu.hk Zheng LIU is a doctoral student at the Library of the Chinese Academy of Science, Haidian, Bejing 100080, China. liuz@mail.las.ac.cn Susan McKNIGHT, formerly Executive Director of Learning Services and University Librarian at Deakin University, is now the Director of Libraries and Knowledge Resources at Nottingham Trent University, The Boots Library, Goldsmith Street, Nottingham NG1 5LS, UK. sue.mcknight@ntu.ac.uk Carmel McNAUGHT is Professor of Learning Enhancement in the Centre for Learning Enhancement And Research (CLEAR) at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. carmel.mcnaught@cuhk.edu.hk Paul W. T. POON is the University Librarian, University of Macau, Av. Padre Tom s Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau. paul poon wt@yahoo.com a Colin STEELE is an Emeritus Fellow, former University Librarian (19802002) and Director Scholarly Information Strategies (20022003) at the Australian National University, W.K. Hancock Building (043), The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia. colin. steele@anu.edu.au Suzanne THORIN is the Ruth Lilly University Dean of University Libraries, Indiana University, 107 S. Indiana Ave. Bloomington, IN 474057000, USA. thorin@indiana.edu Karen WETZEL is the Program Ofcer for Distance Learning, Association of Research Libraries, 21 Dupont Circle, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036, USA. karen@arl.org YAN Jinwei is a Professor and Director of the Wuhan University Library, Luojia Hill, Wuhan 430072, China. yjw@lib.whu.edu.cn

List of Figures and Tables

Figure 1.1 Two depictions of the relationships between information literacy, eLearning and digital publishing Figure 1.2 Extension of the model to include institutional policy frameworks and the external socio-cultural milieu Figure 1.3 Approximate locations of the chapters in this book Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Number of registered and exempted programmes Geographical distribution of non-local programmes Non-local programmes offered by OUHK

Figure 3.1 Simple representation of an aligned curriculum Figure 3.2 Nine information literacy standards (after ALA & AECT, 1998, pp. 89) Figure 3.3 Interactions in a 21st century learning environment (Feitz, 1997) C State of Victoria (Department of Education & Training) 2002 Table 3.1 Big6 Skills (Eisenberg, 2001) (The Big6 is copyright (1987) Michael B. Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowitz. www.big6.com)TM TM



xii Table 3.2

List of Figures and Tables Relationship between functions of technology and particular strategies (after McNaught, 2002) Implications of the challenges of using technology Deakin Online infrastructure Deakin University application architecture Constructivist action research cycle Developmental processes in networked learning Learning journey empowered by the scholarly communication system Projection of the growth of the consortia eBook collection Costs incurred and outputs produced Sources and types of citation from 1998 to 2002 Citation numbers for journals and monographs from 1998 to 2002 Citation numbers for conference papers from 1998 to 2002 Citation numbers for dissertations from 1998 to 2002 Citation numbers for eSource from 1998 to 2002 Percentage of citations from Chinese journals from 1998 to 2002 Percentage of citations from English journals from 1998 to 2002 Distribution of Chinese academic forums Distribution of creators of Chinese academic forums

Table 3.3 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.2

Figure 11.3

Figure 11.4 Figure 11.5 Figure 11.6

Figure 11.7

Figure 11.8 Figure 11.9

Figure 11.10 Proportion of Chinese websites in four subjects

List of Figures and Tables Figure 11.11 Distribution of Chinese website creators in four subjects Figure 11.12 Distribution of American website creators in four subjects Table 11.1


Publications statistics in China (from The Annual of Chinese Publications) Statistics of Internet users in China (in millions)

Table 11.2


A work like thisa compilation of intellectual endeavors of a diverse group of authorsis the crystallization of the collective wisdom of these writers. They (their names and afliations appear on another page) hail from different countries with different areas of expertise. Seeing the usefulness of producing a work like this, they all made time in their hectic schedules to write chapters for this book. For their contribution of time and well-crafted pieces, we as editors would like to extend our profound thanks. In particular, it should be acknowledged with gratitude the contributors obliging patience and willingness to cooperate when faced sometimes with seemingly never-ending requests from us for textual improvements and small details. The writers were originally invited to come to Taiwan as speakers in an academic conference with the theme Strategic Planning for eLearning and Digital Content organized by Feng Chia University in Taichung, Taiwan, and scheduled at the beginning of 2003. However, because of the SARS outbreak, the conference was turned into a virtue one with an online mode. The overwhelming majority of speakers graciously agreed to go along with this idea. They produced narrated PowerPoint presentations, and designed online forums and assignment tasks. The result was a very successful eWorkshop, which convincingly demonstrated the power of the emerging technology in teaching and learning. Our gratitude goes to Rebecca Leung and her team at Feng Chia University Library, who organized and coordinated this complex, interactive, international event. For this well-attended and wellacclaimed eWorkshop, we would also like to thank the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, and Feng Chia University for their commitment, and varied and highly competent logistic support. This work has culminated in the development of the International Research Centre for eLearning and Digital Publishing, which is based in Taiwan.




Finally, the editors would like to thank Springer-Verlag for agreeing to publish this book, and Ms Catherine Drury, the very capable Editorial Assistant for Computer Science at Springer in London, for her guidance and advice right from the conception of this book to the nal editing and production stage. However, needless to say, the nal responsibility for whatever oversights, limitations and blemishes that exist in the book is ours alone. Hsianghoo Steve Ching, Paul W. T. Poon and Carmel McNaught February 2005

Chapter 1 ISSUES IN ORGANIZING AND DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE IN THE 21ST CENTURYCarmel McNaught, Paul W. T. Poon and Hsianghoo Steve Ching


The eRevolution, Globalization and Higher Education

That education is of paramount importance to a nation and to humanity is surely beyond any doubt. In the pre-knowledge-based economy, the main purpose of education was to reduce illiteracy so that citizens could become contributing members of the society. However, in the present knowledge-based economy, education has taken on a new dimension because of the pervasive presence and inuence of information technology. This remarkable rise in the use of computer technology, and the concomitant changes in all areas of society that have resulted, is coined the eRevolution. The speed of the development of information technology is such that knowledge becomes superseded quite rapidly, and education has to be continuing and lifelong if one wishes to continue to be a productive member of the workforce. Education is thus inextricably linked with the level of economic development of a nation. On a personal level, education enables access to a diversity of ideas and cultures, hopefully facilitating personal growth and understanding across nations and cultures. It is therefore not surprising that many nations have made heavy investments in building up their educational system and infrastructure. This has included large investments in a range of educational technologies. However, notwithstanding the huge investment and high priority given, educational systems in almost every country these days are criticized as inadequate (both in terms of quantity and quality), and failing to match the expectation of almost all stakeholders. Calls for wholesale educational reform, at both root and branch level, are frequently heard. Why has education not been able to meet societys needs? This book will focus on only a tiny aspect of that huge question. We will examine the way inH. S. Ching, P W. T. Poon and C. McNaught (Eds.), eLearning and Digital Publishing, 110. . C 2006 H. S. Ching, P W. T. Poon and C. McNaught. Printed in the Netherlands. .


McNaught et al.

which technology has impacted on the processes of scholarly communication in higher education. We will show technology as being part contributor to the challenges higher education faces, and also part contributor to the solutions we need to explore. While the contributors to this book are often critical of current university practices and cognizant of the complex challenges that face us, this book is not a doom and gloom scenario. We have compiled this book with a belief that we need to understand issues and challenges in order to be innovative, think outside the box, and move forwards. The world is said...