Effects of pH in irrigation water on plant growth and flower quality in herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)

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  • Scientia Horticulturae 154 (2013) 4553

    Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    Scientia Horticulturae

    journa l h o me page: www.elsev ier .com

    Effects th herbac

    Daqiu ZhJiangsu Key Lab Yangz

    a r t i c l

    Article history:Received 11 DReceived in reAccepted 25 F

    Keywords:Herbaceous pepHFlower qualityGene expression

    all.) i to dewatemeteng char, hypH 4.ive enat th

    pH in irrigation water, and the most serious stress to P. lactiora was caused under pH 10.0 treatment.Compared with plants irrigated with water at pH 7.0, 26.78% and 27.82% reduction were found in owerdiameter and ower fresh weight of plants irrigated with water at pH 4.0. Likely, ower color fade underpH 4.0 treatment was attributed to decreased anthocyanin content and increased pH value of petal, whichwere coordinately regulated by nine anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter1gene (NHX1), respectively. The results would provide a theoretical guidance for the use of irrigation water

    1. Introdu

    HerbacePaeoniacea2002), and as China, NWaltona etower whicers with trhistory. Owtic, colorfulimportant mple all overbeginning gcultivationsapplied in udevelopme

    CorresponE-mail add

    1 These auth

    0304-4238/$ http://dx.doi.oin practical production of P. lactiora. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    ction

    ous peony (Paeonia lactiora Pall.), belonging to thee family, originates in temperate Eurasia (Eason et al.,is widely cultivated in many countries and areas, suchew Zealand, Europe, North America (Jia et al., 2008;

    al., 2010). In China, P. lactiora is a traditional famoush has shared the name the king and minister of ow-ee peony and has more than 4000 years of cultivationing to its excellent ornamental values including gigan-, chic-type and fragrant owers as well as extremelyedicinal values, it has been deeply favored by peo-

    the world. Meanwhile, it has been expanded from thearden cultivation to the potted ower and cut ower. Moreover, it has been paid more attention and widelyrban green space with the advance of ower industry

    nt.

    ding author. Tel.: +86 514 87997219; fax: +86 514 87347537.ress: taojun@yzu.edu.cn (J. Tao).ors contributed equally to this work.

    With the acceleration of urbanization, industrial and miningenterprises develop rapidly, which is followed by all kinds ofpollutant discharge making water polluted. The lack of depend-able supplies of good-quality water in many regions has becomea concern as the competition among agricultural, urban, indus-trial, environmental, and recreational groups continues to increase(Valdez-Aguilar et al., 2009). The change of pH value is an importantfeature of polluted water. Predecessors have reported the effectsof different pH treatments on plant growth in Metroxylon sagu(Anugoolprasert et al., 2012), Camellia sinensis (Ruan et al., 2007),Chlamydomonas acidophila (Gerloff-Elias et al., 2005), Anabaenopsiselenkini (Santos et al., 2011) and so on, and their results are not iden-tical. Plants irrigated with pH changed water will bring the changeof rhizosphere pH, which affects plant growth including morphol-ogy, photosynthesis, nutrient absorption (Clark and Burge, 2002;Gerloff-Elias et al., 2005; Ruan et al., 2007; Valdez-Aguilar et al.,2009; Kang et al., 2011; Santos et al., 2011; Anugoolprasert et al.,2012). But for ower plants, the ornamental value of ower qual-ity, especially ower color is more concerned besides plant growth.However, little is known about the effects of pH in irrigation wateron ower color performance.

    Flower color is determined by two major factors, pigmentspresent in the vacuole and intra-vacuolar environment (vacuolar

    see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.rg/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.02.023 of pH in irrigation water on plant groweous peony (Paeonia lactiora Pall.)

    ao1, Zhaojun Hao1, Jing Wang, Jun Tao

    oratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, College of Horticulture and Plant Protection,

    e i n f o

    ecember 2012vised form 23 February 2013ebruary 2013

    ony

    a b s t r a c t

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiora Pvalues. The objective of this study wasaffected by extreme pH in irrigation a decrease in all morphological parawaters. Physiological indices includimalondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugresponse to irrigation with waters at Moreover, activities of three protecttreatments. These results indicated th/ locate /sc ihor t i

    and ower quality in

    hou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China

    s an excellent landscape plant because of its great ornamentaltermine if plant growth and ower quality of P. lactiora werer. Compared with the control (pH 7.0), P. lactiora exhibitedrs except leaf number when irrigated with pH 4.0 and 10.0lorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, soluble protein,drogen peroxide (H2O2) and free proline were increased in

    0 and 10.0, while the decline was occurred in chlorophyll a/b.zymes were also decreased in response to pH 4.0 and 10.0e growth of P. lactiora was signicantly affected by extreme

  • 46 D. Zhao et al. / Scientia Horticulturae 154 (2013) 4553

    pH and metal ion content) (Reuveni et al., 2001). Several reportsdemonstrated the importance of vacuolar pH in determining owercolor (Asen et al., 1975; Markham and Ofman, 1993). Na+/H+

    antiporters (NHXs), membrane proteins, are localized in plasmamembrane of Na+ for Hgradient (Yaantiporter gsis thalianabeen identiica (Du et aHalostachys2012). Overplant vacuoating salt stLiu et al., 2blue coloramutant deuolar pH toet al., 2000results demin regulatin

    P. lactioChina to nostudies havwhen the ptheoretical we presentP. lactiora

    2. Materia

    2.1. Plant M

    Potted Peld in thetection Coll(3230 N, 1growing suter, 1.72 g/k84.83 mg/kpeat moss were manafertilizers, a45 consisteAfter leaf ex(KClHCl) aand tap watof plant moleaves wereprotective eower qualliquid nitro

    2.2. Morph

    Plant hstick (Zhejistem diameshangliang determined

    2.3. Physiol

    Chloropwere deter

    (2000). Soluble protein, soluble sugar and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) contents were measured by reagent kits (Nanjing JianchengBioengineering Institute, China), and anthocyanin content was per-formed with the method reported by Meng and Wang (2004).

    nall was hai Pugat

    otect

    tly, 0d exttractultinllectxidethe EC 1idatioC 1.ng B

    ower

    er fand

    easu werent

    a* anted aVoss

    fect o

    L 9petaded repaed an

    nm.

    A ex

    al RNotoc

    was xpreere ting troph

    olatio

    ationer. 2cati

    wereThe and ith prim

    5--CCmersand vacuolar membrane which catalyze the exchange+ across membranes using the proton electrochemicalmaguchi et al., 2003). In NHXs, the rst vacuolar Na+/H+

    ene (NHX) in higher plant was isolated from Arabidop- (Apse et al., 1999). Subsequently, a series of NHX haded from various plant species, including Zoysia japon-l., 2010), Salicornia brachiata (Anupama et al., 2011),

    caspica (Guan et al., 2011), Karelinia caspica (Liu et al.,expression and RNA interference of NHX suggested thatlar Na+/H+ antiporter played an essential role in allevi-ress (Apse et al., 1999; Qiao et al., 2007; An et al., 2008;012). Meantime, an increase in vacuolar pH enhancedtion of Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), but in thecient in the NHX1 gene was unable to increase its vac-

    create the normal bright blue petals (Fukada-Tanaka; Yamaguchi et al., 2001; Ohnishi et al., 2005). Theseonstrated that the vacuolar NHX1 played a crucial roleg pH.ra can grow in different conditions from south-centralrthern China (Wang and Zhang, 2005). However, fewe compared the growth characteristics of P. lactioraH in irrigation water is changed. In order to provide aguidance for the use of irrigation water in P. lactiora,ed our work on the effects of pH in irrigation water onplant growth and ower quality in this study.

    ls and methods

    aterials

    . lactiora cultivar Zifengyu was placed on an open germplasm repository of Horticulture and Plant Pro-ege, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Province, P.R. China1925 E). These plants were potted in October 2009,bstrate was garden soil (29.83 g/kg soil organic mat-g total nitrogen, 13.87 mg/kg available phosphorus,

    g available potassium and pH 6.17) and pH balanced(Klasmann-Deilmann, Germany) (1:1, v/v), and theyged in accordance with the eld management withouts well as using tap water as irrigation water. Until 2012,nt growth plants were selected as the study materials.pansion, plants were irrigated thoroughly using pH 4.0nd pH 10.0 (KClNaOH) buffer solutions once a week,er (pH 7.0) was used as the control. After determinationrphological parameters in the full-bloom stage, their

    taken for determination of physiological indices andnzyme activities, owers were taken and used to studyity and color. All samples were immediately frozen ingen, and then stored at 80 C until analysis.

    ological parameters measurements

    eight and crown width were measured by meterang Yuyao Sanxin Measuring Tools Co., Ltd., China),ter was measured by micrometer scale (Taizhou Xin-Measuring Tools Co., Ltd., China), and leaf area was

    according to a paper weighing method.

    ogical indices determinations

    hyll, malondialdehyde (MDA) and free proline contentsmined according to the method reported by Zou

    Additiowhich(Shangcentrif

    2.4. Pr

    Firsgen anThe exthe reswas coSuperousing (POD: col ox(CAT: EJianche

    2.5. Fl

    Flowance (Gwas mindicesInstruming L*, calcula1992;

    2.6. Ef