Effectiveness of Foreign Military Assets in Natural Disasters Response

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOREIGN MILITARY ASSETS IN NATURAL DISASTER RESPONSEA report by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOREIGN MILITARY ASSETS IN NATURAL DISASTER RESPONSE

This study examines the advantages, limitations and implications of involving foreign military assetspersonnel, equipment and expertisein the relief operations that follow major natural disasters. It presents the ndings of a research project carried out by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) with the support of the United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Foreign military assets have made large contributions to several recent natural disaster relief operations, yet their use in such operations remains controversial. The questions asked range from matters of principleis it appropriate for foreign forces to take part in humanitarian work?to more practical considerations such as cost, how effectively foreign military assets can participate in civilian-led humanitarian operations and how the presence of foreign military assets affects the ability of civilian humanitarian organizations to act independently and safely. This study provides an overview of the current use of foreign military assets in natural disaster response, including how and why they are deployed. It also analyses the role played by foreign military assets in several major disaster relief operations: in Mozambique following the oods in 2000, in Haiti following oods and tropical storm Jeanne in 2004, in Aceh province, Indonesia, following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, and in Pakistan-administered Kashmir following the South Asia earthquake of 2005.

The Effectiveness of Foreign Military Assets in Natural Disaster Response

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIPRI is an independent international institute for research into problems of peace and conict, especially those of arms control and disarmament. It was established in 1966 to commemorate Swedens 150 years of unbroken peace. The Institute is nanced mainly by a grant proposed by the Swedish Government and subsequently approved by the Swedish Parliament. The staff and the Governing Board are international. The Institute also has an Advisory Committee as an international consultative body. The Governing Board is not responsible for the views expressed in the publications of the Institute. Governing Board Ambassador Rolf Ekus, Chairman (Sweden) Dr Willem F. van Eekelen, Vice-Chairman (Netherlands) Dr Alexei G. Arbatov (Russia) Jayantha Dhanapala (Sri Lanka) Dr Nabil Elaraby (Egypt) Rose E. Gottemoeller (United States) Professor Mary Kaldor (United Kingdom) Professor Ronald G. Sutherland (Canada) The Director Director Bates Gill (United States)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Signalistgatan 9, SE-169 70 Solna, Sweden Telephone: +46 8/655 97 00 Fax: +46 8/655 97 33 Email: sipri@sipri.org Internet: http://www.sipri.org/

The Effectiveness of Foreign Military Assets in Natural Disaster ResponseSharon Wiharta, Hassan Ahmad, Jean-Yves Haine, Josena Lfgren and Tim Randall

Supported by the United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL PEACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2008

SIPRI 2008 Design and layout: FSPNetwork Co., Ltd, Thailand Cover image: Bauer/USN/IP Printed in Sweden by Elanders ISBN 9789185114573

ContentsAcknowledgements Executive summary Abbreviations Chapter 1. Background The study Concepts and denitions Scope and limitations of the study Data collection The report Chapter 2. A changing landscape for disaster relief assistance The incidence of natural disasters Funding Foreign military assets and humanitarian space The Oslo Guidelines Figure 1. Number of rapid-onset natural disasters, 19972006 Figure 2. The changing incidence of different types of rapid-onset natural disaster, 19972006 Table 1. Overseas development assistance disbursements and emergency assistance from all donors, 20002005 Box 1. Key principles of the Oslo Guidelines Chapter 3. Overview of the use of foreign military assets: 19972006 Contributing countries Assets provided Which disasters Figure 3. Annual number of deployments reported by Canada, Japan, the Netherlands and the UK, 19972006 Chapter 4. The decision to use military assets Contributing countries Affected countries Channelling of military assets Figure 4. Australias AusAssist plan Table 2. Reported bilateral and multilateral contributions of foreign military assets during the international disaster response to the 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran viii ix xvi 1 1 1 2 3 5 6 6 8 8 10 7 7 8 11 12 12 15 17 15 19 19 24 26 23 28

vi The Effectiveness of Foreign Military Assets in Natural Disaster Response

Chapter 5. The effectiveness of using foreign military assets in natural disaster response Timeliness Appropriateness Efciency Absorptive capacity Coordination Costs Measuring effectiveness Box 2. The allocation of costs in Japan and the UK for deploying military assets to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami response Box 3. Introduction of a cost-sharing mechanism in the UK Chapter 6. Findings and recommendations The effectiveness of using military assets The role of the UN humanitarian coordination system Norms and principles Recommendations Annex A. Case study: Floods and cyclones in Mozambique, 2000 Background Mozambique in 2000 The response Key ndings from the 2000 ood response Lessons learned: the oods and cyclone in 2007 Map of Central and Southern Mozambique Table A.1. Foreign military assets contributed to the disaster relief operations in Mozambique, 2000 Annex B. Case study: Floods and tropical storm Jeanne, Haiti, 2004 Background Disaster response: the oods of May 2004 Disaster response: tropical storm Jeanne Lessons learned Map of Central and Eastern Haiti Table A.2. Foreign military assets contributed to the ood relief operation in Haiti, May 2004 Table A.3. Foreign military assets contributed to the tropical storm Jeanne relief operation in Haiti, 2004 Annex C. Case study: Indian Ocean tsunami, Aceh province, Indonesia, 2004 Background The existing domestic disaster management structure The national response to the disaster The decision to request and send foreign military assets

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Contents vii

The use of foreign military assets Conclusions and lessons learned Map of Aceh province, Indonesia Table A.4. Foreign military assets contributed to the tsunami relief operation in Aceh province, Indonesia, 20042005 Annex D. Case study: South Asia earthquake, Pakistan, 2005 Background Existing disaster management arrangements The response The effectiveness of the foreign military assets Lessons learned Map of Northern Pakistan, including Pakistan-adminstered Kashmir Table A.5. Foreign military assets contributed to the earthquake relief operation in Pakistan in 2005 Annex E. Lists of respondents Annex F. Questionnaires used in the study About the authors

91 97 86 99 107 107 108 109 116 118 106 120 124 133 140

AcknowledgementsThis study would not have been possible without the support of the United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), in particular the Policy and Development Studies Branch. Funding for this study was provided by the Governments of Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway. The study has beneted greatly from the invaluable comments and advice provided by the Advisory Group. Special thanks are due to Christina Bennett, Hansjoerg Strohmeyer, Kai Koddenbroch and Marcus Elten at OCHA, who provided critical feedback throughout the study, and to the SIPRI editorial team, in particular Caspar Trimmer and Jetta Gilligan Borg. The authors would also like to thank all those who made themselves available for interviews for this study. The Advisory Group Anne-Birgitte Albrectsen, Head, Department of Humanitarian Policy and Assistance and NGO Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark Lt Gen. (ret.) Farook Ahmad Khan, Chairman, National Disaster Management Authority, Pakistan P. G. Dhar Chakrabarti, Executive Director, National Institute of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, India Tom Dolan, Senior Regional Adviser for AsiaPacic, Ofce of United States Foreign Disaster Assistance, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Garry Dunbar, Australian Defence Force Liaison, Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Arne Jan Flolo, Humanitarian Affairs Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway Col. (ret.) Linton Graham, Jamaica Defence Force (on behalf of the Caribbean Community, CARICOM) Michael Marx, Head, CivilMilitary Coordination Section, OCHA Mitsunori Nanba, Director, Overseas Disaster Assistance Division, International Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Lt Col. Nicholas Slinger, Deputy Military Adviser, United Kingdom Mission to the United Nations Paulo Zucula, Director, National Disaster Management Institute, Mozambique

Executive summaryThis study examines the advantages, limitations and implications of using foreign military assets as part of the international response after major natural disasters. Humanitarian principle dictates that all available resourcesincluding military assetsshould be used to minimize the human cost of a natural disaster. In recognition of the fact that humanitarian relief is and should remain a predominantly civilian function, international norms have been established that place conditions and limitations on the use of foreign military assets in disaster relief operations: these assets should be used only if they meet a genuine humanitarian need, operate in accordance with humanitarian principles and complement and coordinate with the other components of the relief ef