Effective Classroom Practice: Expectations and Rules
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DESCRIPTIONEffective Classroom Practice: Expectations and Rules. MO SW-PBS . Center for PBS College of Education University of Missouri. ~15%. ~5%. ~80% of Students. CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT. Tier 3 = Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Effective Classroom Practice:Expectations and RulesMO SW-PBS
Center for PBSCollege of EducationUniversity of Missouri
Tier 1 = Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems for All Students,Staff, & SettingsTier 2 = Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk BehaviorTier 3 = Tertiary Prevention:Specialized IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORTGoal: Reduce new cases of problem behavior and/or academic failureGoal: Reduce current cases of problem behavior and/or academic failureGoal: Reduce intensity and severity of chronic problem behavior and/or academic failure
SYSTEMSPRACTICESDATASupportingStaff BehaviorSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStudent BehaviorSW PositiveBehaviorSupportOUTCOMESSocial Competence &Academic Achievement
Effective Classroom PracticesClassroom: Expectations & Rules Procedures & Routines Continuum of Strategies to Acknowledge Appropriate BehaviorContinuum of Strategies to Respond to Inappropriate BehaviorActive SupervisionMultiple Opportunities to RespondActivity Sequence & Offering ChoiceAcademic Success & Task Difficulty
Classroom Expectations & RulesIdentify, Teach, Practice, Reinforce
Why Focus on Classroom Rules?A dependable system of rules and procedures provides structure for students and helps them be engaged with instructional tasks (Brophy, 1998)Teaching rules and routines to students at the beginning of the year and enforcing them consistently across time increases student academic achievement and task engagement (Evertson & Emer, 1982; Johnson, Stoner & Green, 1996)Clearly stating expectations and consistently supporting them lends credibility to a teachers authority (Good & Brophy, 2000)
What are Expectations and Rules?Expectations are outcomesRules are the specific criteria for meeting expectation outcomesRules identify and define concepts of acceptable behaviorUse of expectations and rules provides a guideline for students to monitor their own behavior and they remind and motivate students to meet certain standards
Discuss: Importance of expectations & rules?2-Minute Frenzy
How has clarifying schoolwide/non-classroom setting rules impacted student behavior?Why do you think it is important to clarify classroom rules?
Guidelines for Writing Classroom RulesConsistent with schoolwide expectations/rulesObservable MeasureablePositively statedUnderstandableAlways applicable Something the teacher will consistently enforce
Other ConsiderationsStudents play a role in formulating rules
Rules displayed prominently; easily seen
Teacher models and reinforces consistently
Rules that are easily monitored
Expectations and RulesExampleExpectation is: Students will be Safe
Keep hands and feet to self
Use materials correctly
Which of These Follow the Guidelines?Keep hands and feet to yourselfTurn in completed assignmentRespect othersWalk in the hallwaysDont run
Which of These Follow the Guidelines?Think before respondingCome to class on time, prepared with all supplies and assignmentsBe responsibleBe ready to learnSit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it
Classroom Rule Writing Activity 1List problem behaviors in your classroomList replacement behavior (what we want kids to do instead) List schoolwide expectationsCategorize rules within schoolwide expectations*Post, teach and acknowledge student compliance of rulesHandout 1 & 2
Handout 1 & 2
Activity 2Classroom Rules Survey Write expectations from the SW matrix.List classroom rules for each expectation.Check if rules meet 5 criteria.Observable, Measurable, Positive, Understandable, Always ApplicableUse survey questions to consider how expectations and rules are used throughout the building.Handout 3
Schedule for Teaching Classroom RulesFirst Grading PeriodTeach rules for all areas of school, including individual classrooms, during first week of schoolAfter first week, review rules 2 or 3 times / week
Schedule for Teaching RulesThrough Second Grading PeriodReview rules once per weekRemainder of the YearReview rules periodically as needed
ReferencesBrophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Evertson, C., & Emmer, E. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke (Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Boston: Pearson Education. Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huan, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66.Good, T. & Brophy, J. (2000). Look Into Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.IRIS Center, Research to Practice Instructional Strategies. Nashville: Vanderbilt University.Johnson, T.C., Stoner, G. & Green, S.K. (1996). Demonstrating the experimenting society model with classwide behavior management interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214.Kern, L., Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 65-75.Newcomer, L. (2007, 2008). Positive Behavior Support in the Classroom. Unpublished presentation. Shores, R., Gunter, P., & Jack, S. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102. Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380.
*** When we talk about building classroom systems these are the features we want in place in all classrooms.
Each of these are research based practices.
This particular list came from a synthesis of work from many researchers including Brandi Simonson at the University of Connecticut and Lee Kern and Nathan Clemens from Lehigh University.
More detailed information regarding studies conducted for each of these practices can be found in a 2008 article titled Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management from the journal Education and Treatment of Children. And in a 2007 article titled Antecedent Strategies to Promote Appropriate Classroom Behavior from the journal, Psychology in the Schools.
To underscore the value of classroom systems, let me show you data from an elementary school here in Missouri. *This school has implemented PBS for a number of years. During their first and second years of work they focused on identifying, teaching and acknowledging schoolwide and non-classroom expectations and rules.
With these supports in place they saw reductions in the overall number of office referrals. *Then during the 2007-08 school year they continued what they were doing in terms of school-wide and non-classroom settings, but also added a specific focus on classroom system practices and this is what happened
They decreased their total number of office referrals from 270 to fewer than 150.
By developing an effective instructional and behavior management system in each classroom, this school decreased referrals by almost 46%.
Focusing on effective classroom system practices dramatically reduced the incidents of problem behavior for this school.
This is why we are talking about developing a classroom system which includes these essential features.
*One of the things we want to emphasize is the importance of good classroom systems.
We do this because we knowbuilding effective classroom systems will reduce the number of students who require more intensive support.
Today we are looking specifically at classroom expectations and rules.*Research tells us
(Read slide)To correctly establish classroom rules we need to understand some specific vocabulary.
Although they are associated, expectations and rules are not the same.
Expectations are the outcomes we want to get. For example, we want students to be Safe, to be Respectful, to be a Learner, to be Responsible. These are expectations or outcomes.
Rules are how we get to those outcomes. Rules are specific, they define what we want students TO DO and they provide a consistent guideline for how to meet the standards of our expectations.
You have already identified the expectations for your school. You have used those expectations to create rules for non-classroom settings- these are on your matrix. Our focus today is using school wide expectations to identify individual classroom rules.
For example, what does it mean to be Safe in Mrs. Andersons kindergarten classroom? Or what does it mean to be Respectful in Mr. Smiths PE class?
Again, expectations are the outcomes we want for students and youve already identified those on your matrix. Rules are the specific criteria for meeting those expectations in each classroom within your building.
(Newcomer, 2008)*Take 2 minutes and talk to someone near you.
Discuss the impact of schoolwide and non-classroom rules in your building.
Talk about how this relates to classroom rules. Classroom expectations and rules must be consistent with schoolwide expectations and rules. School rules are in effect in the classroom. What we identify as classroom rules are additional, extra or specific to the classroom setting anything not al