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  • http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1138 editor@iaeme.com

    International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2018, pp. 1138–1150, Article ID: IJCIET_09_09_110

    Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=9

    ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

    © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

    EFFECT OF TIRE CRUMB RUBBER (TCR) ON

    THE GYRATORY COMPACTION OF STONE

    MASTIC ASPHALT

    Abdulnaser Al-Sabaeei

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

    Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

    R. Muniandy, S. Hassim

    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

    Madzlan Napiah

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

    Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

    ABSTRACT

    Compaction is one of the most important parameters that affect the properties and

    performance of asphalt mixture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of

    TCR on the gyratory compaction of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. Samples for

    performance tests were prepared using Superpave mix design method. A 40 mesh TCR

    powder was varied from 0 to 2.5 % by weight of the total mix with 0.5% increment.

    Several analyses including the volumetric properties of SMA, resilient modulus and

    Marshall Properties, stability and flow were tested for both control and rubberized

    mixtures. The results showed that as the amount of TCR increased the number of

    gyrations required increased and the drain down of the binder decreased. The

    rubberized samples showed better stability, resilient modulus and drain down

    resistance than the control samples. The Optimum amount of the TCR was found to be

    0.9% of the total weight of the mix that corresponds to the 72 number of gyrations. That

    optimum fulfils the Superpave mix asphalt method requirements in terms of air voids,

    volumetric properties, resilient modulus and Marshall Properties, stability and flow.

    Keywords: Tire Crumb Rubber; Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC); Number of

    Gyrations; SMA Volumetric Properties; Drain Down.

    Cite this Article: Abdulnaser Al-Sabaeei, R. Muniandy, S. Hassim and Madzlan

    Napiah, Effect of Tire Crumb Rubber (TCR) On The Gyratory Compaction of Stone

    Mastic Asphalt, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(9), 2018,

    pp. 1138–1150.

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=9

  • Effect of Tire Crumb Rubber (TCR) On The Gyratory Compaction of Stone Mastic Asphalt

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1139 editor@iaeme.com

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Stone Mastic Asphalt is a gap-graded bituminous mixture which contains high proportions of

    coarse aggregate and filler. In addition to that, this type of mix asphalt needs higher asphalt

    content to keep the interlocked aggregate bound in intact .The combination is a mixture that

    has excellent stone-on-stone contact which is very resistant to compaction, traffic loading,

    rutting distresses and improves the Marshall properties of this type of mixtures [1-4]. The

    Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) was developed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers which

    also been designed to compact the hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures to simulate the rollers

    compaction during the construction [5, 6]. The aims of using this compactor were to achieve

    the density similar to that obtained in the field under traffic. In addition to the orient the

    aggregate particles as same as happened in the field [5, 7, 8]. Number of Gyrations required

    for HMA using SGC to achieve the desired thickness or density is based on the level of traffic

    loading that mix asphalt will design for [8-10]. Each type of mixture either dense- graded, gap

    - graded or open- graded has a different effect based on the percentage of the components

    (coarse, fine aggregate, filler, and additives) using in the mixture [11, 12] as well as the Mix

    asphalt design method [12]. In addition to the air voids required to achieve the desirable

    density. These Parameters have the direct relationship with the number of gyration, as a high

    density required (lower air voids) that will be needed the higher number of gyrations [13].

    The temperature of Compaction is also one of the very important parameters has the indirect

    effect on the number of gyrations. It was shown that variation of the temperature slightly affects

    the volumetric properties of the mixtures which include the density that increased as the

    number of gyration increased and introduced a potential change in the stiffness modulus [14].

    It was observed that the effect of angle of gyration and ram pressure on the number of gyrations

    had a direct effect on the volumetric based on the type of mix and grade of bitumen used [13,

    14]. The results of a recent study showed that the good improving for volumetric properties as

    the percentages of TCR increased as well as the resilient modulus and Marshall properties [15].

    Another study presented that the SMA mixtures with rubber showed good binding properties

    for SMA performance [16].

    Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of crumb rubber on properties

    of asphalt mixtures by several parameters. However, the previous studies conducted fails to

    address one of the most important factors, that is effect of number of gyrations which has direct

    effect on the volumetric properties and performance of the asphalt mixture. Therefore, this

    study investigates the effect of tyre crumb rubber on number of gyrations for stone mastic

    asphalt mixture samples using Superpave gyratory compaction method.

    Another important factor to be mentioned here is, usually with SMA, cellulose fiber is used

    to improve the resistant of SMA for the drain down of the binder [1, 17, 18]. However, there

    is previous study used TCR as a drain down preventative in SMA that provided good results

    but it was blended with other additives ( Low-Density Polyethylene) [19]. Another study also

    used a wet process to investigate the effects of TCR as a drain down preventive in gap-graded

    mixtures. It was found that the TCR minimized the drain down of the binder for the long term

    [20].Therefore, In this study, TCR is used without any other additives, which means not only

    as a preventive for drain down but also for improving the resistance of the asphalt mixture for

    loading, compaction, and enhancement the durability and strength of the asphalt mix as well.

  • Atoyebi Olumoyewa D, Odeyemi Samson O, Bello Sefiu A and Ogbeifun Cephas O

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1140 editor@iaeme.com

    2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    2.1. Materials

    Crushed granite aggregate with maximum nominal size of 19mm was used throughout this

    study to prepare the stone asphalt mixture samples. Table 1 shows the physical properties of

    granite aggregate used. Also, the desired gradation of the selected aggregate as shown in

    Figure1. Bitumen binder grade 60/70 penetration with the properties shown in Table 2 was

    used. The gradation of tire crumb rubber was used in this study no.40 (0.425mm) with a density

    of tire crumb rubber of 1.15 gm/cm3.The chemical component of TCR as shown in Table 3.

    Table 1 Physical Properties of Granite Aggregate

    Test Standard used Results obtained Requirement Notes

    LA ASTM C131 17.80% < 30% Suitable

    Soundness ASTM C88 5.73% < 12% Suitable

    Specific Gravity ASTM C127 2.615 ˃ 2.60 Suitable

    Table 2 Properties of bitumen Binder

    Test Standard used Results obtained

    Penetration @25°C ASTM D5 60.33

    Ductility@25°C ASTM D113 ˃ 100

    Softening Point, °C ASTM D36 57.50

    Flash Point, °C ASTM D92 304

    Fire Point, °C ASTM D92 ˃ 310

    Specific Gravity ASTM D70 1.03

    Viscosity @ 135 °C ASTM D4402 436.95

    Viscosity @ 165 °C ASTM D4402 115.28

    Table 3 Chemical Component of TCR no. 40

    Chemical

    Component Test Results

    Acetone extract (%) 23.1

    Rubber hydrocarbon 46.6

    Carbon black content 25.08

    Natural rubber content 43.85

    Ash content (%) 5.2

    Particle size(µ) 425

  • Effect of Tire Crumb Rubber (TCR) On The Gyratory Compaction of Stone Mastic Asphalt

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1141 editor@iaeme.com

    Figure 1 Selected Aggregate Gradation

    2.2. Experimentation Methods

    2.2.1. Preparation of control mixture samples

    The study was completely conducted at University Putra Malaysia which is the part of Master

    thesis. The Superpave mixture design method was used to prepare the asphalt mixture samples.

    The number of gyrations for control samples taken 125 gyrations according to Superpave

    standards. The samples were prepared according to the Superpave mix asphalt method

    protocol, in terms of procedures and aging conditioning. For each asphalt content, three

    samples were compacted at the estimated asphalt content to the target design number of

    gyrations using the SGC. The bulk

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