EDUCARNIVAL 2016 at IIT DELHI - Presentation by Anuradha Rai

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<p>The Joy of Teaching Math Session 4</p> <p>The Nuances of Teaching English</p> <p>Ms.Anuradha RaiVice PrincipalAmbience Public School, Delhi</p> <p>Three domainsDomain 1: Teachers SkillsGrowth Mindset, Learning and motivation, class management</p> <p>Domain 2: Horizontal Skills Selection of textbooksTest taking, Assessment</p> <p>Dimension 3: Core SkillsLanguage acquisitionTeaching Comprehension,Enjoying Literature Writing</p> <p> Growth MindsetWith progress in teaching methods our approach needs to change. From teacher centric to student centric Teachers need toLearnUnlearn Relearn</p> <p> A term that is used to describe this is Growth Mindset as opposed to Fixed Mindset. </p> <p>3</p> <p>Growth vs Fixed</p> <p>4</p> <p>Examining our beliefsOur beliefs affect our teaching practices even if not articulatedUnless we recognise our beliefs and challenge them no change happens</p> <p> A Willingness To ChangeSchools transformative not just for kids, but for teachers as wellDo not teach the way you were taught. Use technology/ Research</p> <p>How children learn ?</p> <p>Develop A Class CultureCulture can be described as the way we do thingsCan be witnessed in the common behaviors and thought processesImportance- children learn best in an environment that is caring and safeA positive culture promotes learning and people consider and care for and treat one other with respect</p> <p>Features</p> <p>Way to go.Establish protocols &amp; Expectancies Build wide instructional strategiesEncourage innovationAccept diversitySupport and Model risk takingScaffold learning through mentoringProvide FeedbackShare and communicate the philosophy to all stake holders</p> <p>Understanding how children learn bestGuiding principlesLearning should be active- 70/30 principleInteractiveAppropriately challengingPurposefulRelevant-connect with interestAllow some autonomy and control</p> <p>Mode of Learning</p> <p>Ensuring Meaningful Learning</p> <p>Get to know your studentsImmediate familyPeople they are close toInterestsFearsFavourite activitiesStrengths and areas to be worked on</p> <p> Emotions and Learning</p> <p>Emotions and thoughts shape each otherNegative emotions like fear and anxiety have a detrimental effect on learningPositive emotions help in learningWe learn best when having fun and when we love the teacher</p> <p>Teacher language that supports</p> <p>I have noticed that--I see that you are getting--It seems you are having difficulty--. How can we work around it?Thank you for sharing your thinkingI am glad you asked that questionWhats another way we can say thisI never thought of that. Tell me more.Thats a good idea. How about if we say it like that</p> <p>Textbook selectionView critically to avoid biased writingStereotypingImbalances and selectivityUnrealityFragmentation and isolationInaccuraciesLinguistic biasDealing with controversies- teachers role</p> <p>Strategies for Promoting a Positive Learning environment</p> <p>Language TeachingNot same as other subjects- more to itStudents must know why they are learning, awareness about standards and learning objectivesSecond language acquisition a gradual process, built on students knowledge and skill of native language</p> <p>Theories of language acquisitionBehavioral approach- learning consists of new behaviors, reinforced responses result in learning: mastery learning is an example, most students can master a skill if given right instructions for the sub-skills</p> <p>Cognitive theory-humans active participants, reinforcements important as give feedback, student centered approach</p> <p>Theories of Language AcquisitionPiagets constructivism believes children construct own meaning/ understanding</p> <p>Social cognitive views of learning- learning happens in a social setting. Vygotsky thought learning happens both from direct experience and social interaction. Stressed on importance of interaction with adults and of scaffolding</p> <p>Implications</p> <p>Implications- hands on experiences, cater to individual differencesSelect developmentally appropriate activitiesRich verbal guidance to foster learningModelling strategies for improving comprehension, using context cluesFormulate own beliefs to set goals and choose instructional techniques</p> <p>Role and development of languageLanguage required in order to read and comprehend and make senseLanguage consists of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, prosody and pragmaticsLanguage learnt through reinforcementChildren have language acquisition device that predisposes them to learn and generate structures activated by verbal inputs</p> <p>Language and thinkingLanguage not just for communicating but for thinking and problem solvingPrivate speech, inner speech, verbal thinkingLearning second language easier than first</p> <p>Reading a Complex TaskProficient readers make connections- self, texts previously readCreate visual images and modelsAsk why questions- why did an event occur, why did the author include certain informationReason- analyse character traits, situation, behaviour, language and draw conclusions, form concepts, evaluate credibility of informationBackground knowledge very important in drawing inferencesComprehension is focussed attention, connection and integration to create mental representation of ideas in the text</p> <p>What good readers do</p> <p>Comprehension StrategiesPreparationalOrganisationalElaborationMetacognitivePreviewingcomprehend main ideadrawing inferencesregulatimg Activating prior knowdetermine &amp; org. important detailsimaging-analogyvisualisingcheckingsetting purpose,goalsequencing follow directiongenerating questionsrepairingPredicting summarisingevaluating- critical reading</p> <p>Strategy InstructionIntroduce strategy- inferring, summarising, predictingDemonstrate and modelGuided practiceIndependent practiceAssessment and reteachingReinforcement and implementationExplain model- I do you watch, Initial guided practice- I do you help, Later guided practice- You do I help, Independence- You do I watch</p> <p>Preparational StrategiesActivating prior knowledge- questioningSetting purpose and goal- for pleasure, to gain information, study for a testPreviewing-surveying title, heading, illustrations- helps create a mental modelPredicting- supporting with evidence, how illustration helps both in fiction and non fiction</p> <p>Prediction ChartPredictionClueschanges in prediction</p> <p>Organisational SkillsComprehending main idea- summary statement that includes other details, it may not the most important idea but is the gist of the pieceConcept of main idea should start as early as possibleInitially MCQ choicesDetermining main idea is classification skillGive students practise to classify objects and words and relate it to concept of inclusive sentence,topical sentence</p> <p>Deciding Main IdeaUse heading or first sentence to make a hypothesisRead each sentence whether it supports the hypothesis, else reviseSee what most sentences have in commonIntroduce strategy, model, guided practice,independent practiceAssessment and reteachingReinforcement- cut out headlines and ask students to match with articles, have students classify list of items</p> <p>Determining relative importance of informationVery important to sift important from trivialText structure, relational terms and reputation of words or concepts determine importanceMost important of all, the three main reasonsBased on structure of a piece- problem and solution important but example can be ignoredMinor details are signalled by also </p> <p>Organisational skillsSequencing- some details to be comprehended and remembered in an orderUse activities like puzzles, sequencing sentences , timelines, following directionsSummarising- retellingUse both narrative and expository texts</p> <p>Elaboration techniquesMaking inferences using prior knowledgeRead out story and analyse one or two important ideasFor each of the ideas create a previous experience question that they have hadCreate a prediction question for eachStudents read and check their predictionsDiscuss predictions and inferential questionsex- Even adults can be afraid of things, share something you know an adult is afraid of,In this story Arun is afraid of something, what is it?</p> <p>Using QAR For students who find it difficult to find answers that cant be found in the text or those who use their previous experience instead of textQuestion- answer relationship:Are they right here- single sentence, does it need to be put together, on my own or writer and me</p> <p>Making inferences using evidenceQuestionEvidence from textOwn experienceInferenceHow did Rita feel at lunchHer stomach was growlingSometimes when I have beeSo I think</p> <p>ImagingStart with single sentences followed by longer pieces. Students read the text and create a mental image which they can drawServes three purposes- fosters understanding, helps retain information and monitor for meaningImages will differ depending on background and prior experience. Do not alter images but ask students to reread or expand images through questioning</p> <p>Analysing a narrative textVarious story grammars but each has certain essentials- setting, characters, plot.Plot is divided into problem/ main characters goal, principal episodes and resolutionStory maybe action oriented, character consciousnessStory structure can be guided through questions</p> <p>QuestioningWhen and where does the story take placeWho are the charactersWhat problem does the main character faceWhat does main character do/ what happens to main characterHow is the problem resolvedUsing retelling to assess students understanding and prompt them to analyse. Important to be aware of students culture</p> <p>Story mapSetting- where and whenCharactersProblemGoalPlotOutcome</p> <p>Expository textsEnumeration- description without giving cause and effectTime sequenceExplanation processCompare and contrastProblem- solutionCause and effect</p> <p>Teaching expository text structureUse CORE Model- connect,organise, reflect, extendConnect- teacher helps build by connecting what students know to what the text investigatesOrganise- teacher helps students to see how the information is organisedReflect- asking students how it can be depicted in a diagramExtend-gathering additional information to add to the web </p> <p>Exploring the textsIntroduce text patterns one at a timeStart with well organised, single paragraphs that focus on text structure being taughtHelp students identify signal words and sense of piece to help rearrange a piece chronologicallySignal words- because, therefore,since, thus, cause, effect, result of, consequently, first, second,next, finally datesGradually move to larger passages</p> <p>Some post reading activitiesGraphic organisers- text structures and time sequenceUsing questions to make connectionsWriting for oganisation- asking students to compose pieces that employ compare and contrast, use of venn diagramsUsing narrative and expository text for mutual support if reading a story which has discrimination or child labour as its theme reading article about discrimination or child labour </p> <p>Role of questions in comprehensionCan be used to develop concepts, build background, clarify reasoning, lead to higher order thinking, foster understanding and retentionPlanning questions to establish main elements, main points, help see relationships of ideas, relate new information to their background experience</p> <p>Placement of questionsBefore reading activate schema and set purpose so as to seek relevant informationDuring reading questions help to clarify confusing elements,process text,maintain ongoing summary-these are especially relevant in primary gradesPost reading help organise and summarise</p> <p>Types of QuestionsComprehending- literal level- list, name, indicate dates, time , placeOrganise- identifying main idea, classifying, noting sequence and summarisingElaborating- making connections between information and prior knowledge, making inferences, creating images, analogies, evaluating</p> <p>Types of QuestionsElaborating- how do you know, Picture the characterMonitoring-being aware whether a selection makes sense and knowing what steps to take e.g Did you find any parts confusing?</p> <p>Using wait timeDo not rush when immediate answer not forthcoming, wait 5 seconds, maintain eye contact and dont turn away, do not rush to ask another studentSet a class culture of inquiry and exploration- be warm and accepting so students can speculate, involve all students</p> <p>Techniques for asking questionsFELS -Taba recommended asking focussing questions to direct students attention Extending questions to seek elaboration and clarificationsLifting the discussion to higher levelSubstantiating questions which asks evidence to support their assumption or conclusion </p> <p>Framework for fostering comprehensionGuided reading- stepsIntroducing the text- through discussions, videoExperiential background or conceptsCritical vocabularyReading strategiesPurpose of readingInterest or connection</p> <p>Steps continuedReadingDiscussionRevisitingExtending</p> <p>Critical ReadingSet a spirit of inquiry where students feel free to challenge statements support controversial ideas, offer divergent view pointsSome skills are identifying use of words, persuasive language, distinguishing between facts and fiction,identifying words that signal opinions, identifying authors opinion,verifying factual statements, identifying bias, supporting conclusion</p> <p>Vocabulary Instruction TechniquesGraphic organisersSemantic maps, pictorial maps, web, venn diagramCreating memorable eventsDetermining shades of meaningExploring word historiesPredict o gramStory impressions</p> <p>Word Roots</p> <p>Closing vocabulary gap</p> <p>SIX WORD KNOWLEDGE TASKS TO EXPAND VOCABULARYLearning to read known words- sight words, using phonics and syllabication to sound wordsLearning new meaning for known words- map, fix, hit, Learning new words for known concepts- plagiarism, irate, melancholyLearning new words for new concepts- most difficult- figurative, ThesaurusClarifying and enriching meaning of known words-lethargic, incoherentMoving words from passive to active vocabulary</p> <p>SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPING VOCABULARYBuilding experiential background- orchard supermarket, zoo museum, fossilRelating vocabulary to background- compliment, beacon as a warning sign, eavesdropBuilding relationships- how new words are related to each other- biography, accomplishment, obstaclesDeveloping depth of meaning- persistent rain, persistent cold, persistent pain</p> <p>EvaluationObservation card- Self selects book, only picture reads, shares with partnerLiteracy observation checklistSelf check list</p> <p>Literacy Observation ChecklistUses variety of comprehension strategiesExpresses interest in readingApplies word recognition skillsExpresses ideas coherentlyMakes reasonable predictionsEnjoys listening to stories</p> <p>Asks sensible questionsSelf corrects errorsShows willingness to take risksUses visual clues to help in comprehensionThese can be done thrice in the year to monitor progressLiteracy Observation Checklist</p> <p>Self checklist- 3,2,1I understand what I readI can find the main idea of a paragraphI think...</p>