EDUCARNIVAL 2016 at IIT DELHI - Presentation by Anuradha Rai

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The Joy of Teaching Math Session 4

The Nuances of Teaching English

Ms.Anuradha RaiVice PrincipalAmbience Public School, Delhi

Three domainsDomain 1: Teachers SkillsGrowth Mindset, Learning and motivation, class management

Domain 2: Horizontal Skills Selection of textbooksTest taking, Assessment

Dimension 3: Core SkillsLanguage acquisitionTeaching Comprehension,Enjoying Literature Writing

Growth MindsetWith progress in teaching methods our approach needs to change. From teacher centric to student centric Teachers need toLearnUnlearn Relearn

A term that is used to describe this is Growth Mindset as opposed to Fixed Mindset.

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Growth vs Fixed

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Examining our beliefsOur beliefs affect our teaching practices even if not articulatedUnless we recognise our beliefs and challenge them no change happens

A Willingness To ChangeSchools transformative not just for kids, but for teachers as wellDo not teach the way you were taught. Use technology/ Research

How children learn ?

Develop A Class CultureCulture can be described as the way we do thingsCan be witnessed in the common behaviors and thought processesImportance- children learn best in an environment that is caring and safeA positive culture promotes learning and people consider and care for and treat one other with respect

Features

Way to go.Establish protocols & Expectancies Build wide instructional strategiesEncourage innovationAccept diversitySupport and Model risk takingScaffold learning through mentoringProvide FeedbackShare and communicate the philosophy to all stake holders

Understanding how children learn bestGuiding principlesLearning should be active- 70/30 principleInteractiveAppropriately challengingPurposefulRelevant-connect with interestAllow some autonomy and control

Mode of Learning

Ensuring Meaningful Learning

Get to know your studentsImmediate familyPeople they are close toInterestsFearsFavourite activitiesStrengths and areas to be worked on

Emotions and Learning

Emotions and thoughts shape each otherNegative emotions like fear and anxiety have a detrimental effect on learningPositive emotions help in learningWe learn best when having fun and when we love the teacher

Teacher language that supports

I have noticed that--I see that you are getting--It seems you are having difficulty--. How can we work around it?Thank you for sharing your thinkingI am glad you asked that questionWhats another way we can say thisI never thought of that. Tell me more.Thats a good idea. How about if we say it like that

Textbook selectionView critically to avoid biased writingStereotypingImbalances and selectivityUnrealityFragmentation and isolationInaccuraciesLinguistic biasDealing with controversies- teachers role

Strategies for Promoting a Positive Learning environment

Language TeachingNot same as other subjects- more to itStudents must know why they are learning, awareness about standards and learning objectivesSecond language acquisition a gradual process, built on students knowledge and skill of native language

Theories of language acquisitionBehavioral approach- learning consists of new behaviors, reinforced responses result in learning: mastery learning is an example, most students can master a skill if given right instructions for the sub-skills

Cognitive theory-humans active participants, reinforcements important as give feedback, student centered approach

Theories of Language AcquisitionPiagets constructivism believes children construct own meaning/ understanding

Social cognitive views of learning- learning happens in a social setting. Vygotsky thought learning happens both from direct experience and social interaction. Stressed on importance of interaction with adults and of scaffolding

Implications

Implications- hands on experiences, cater to individual differencesSelect developmentally appropriate activitiesRich verbal guidance to foster learningModelling strategies for improving comprehension, using context cluesFormulate own beliefs to set goals and choose instructional techniques

Role and development of languageLanguage required in order to read and comprehend and make senseLanguage consists of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, prosody and pragmaticsLanguage learnt through reinforcementChildren have language acquisition device that predisposes them to learn and generate structures activated by verbal inputs

Language and thinkingLanguage not just for communicating but for thinking and problem solvingPrivate speech, inner speech, verbal thinkingLearning second language easier than first

Reading a Complex TaskProficient readers make connections- self, texts previously readCreate visual images and modelsAsk why questions- why did an event occur, why did the author include certain informationReason- analyse character traits, situation, behaviour, language and draw conclusions, form concepts, evaluate credibility of informationBackground knowledge very important in drawing inferencesComprehension is focussed attention, connection and integration to create mental representation of ideas in the text

What good readers do

Comprehension StrategiesPreparationalOrganisationalElaborationMetacognitivePreviewingcomprehend main ideadrawing inferencesregulatimg Activating prior knowdetermine & org. important detailsimaging-analogyvisualisingcheckingsetting purpose,goalsequencing follow directiongenerating questionsrepairingPredicting summarisingevaluating- critical reading

Strategy InstructionIntroduce strategy- inferring, summarising, predictingDemonstrate and modelGuided practiceIndependent practiceAssessment and reteachingReinforcement and implementationExplain model- I do you watch, Initial guided practice- I do you help, Later guided practice- You do I help, Independence- You do I watch

Preparational StrategiesActivating prior knowledge- questioningSetting purpose and goal- for pleasure, to gain information, study for a testPreviewing-surveying title, heading, illustrations- helps create a mental modelPredicting- supporting with evidence, how illustration helps both in fiction and non fiction

Prediction ChartPredictionClueschanges in prediction

Organisational SkillsComprehending main idea- summary statement that includes other details, it may not the most important idea but is the gist of the pieceConcept of main idea should start as early as possibleInitially MCQ choicesDetermining main idea is classification skillGive students practise to classify objects and words and relate it to concept of inclusive sentence,topical sentence

Deciding Main IdeaUse heading or first sentence to make a hypothesisRead each sentence whether it supports the hypothesis, else reviseSee what most sentences have in commonIntroduce strategy, model, guided practice,independent practiceAssessment and reteachingReinforcement- cut out headlines and ask students to match with articles, have students classify list of items

Determining relative importance of informationVery important to sift important from trivialText structure, relational terms and reputation of words or concepts determine importanceMost important of all, the three main reasonsBased on structure of a piece- problem and solution important but example can be ignoredMinor details are signalled by also

Organisational skillsSequencing- some details to be comprehended and remembered in an orderUse activities like puzzles, sequencing sentences , timelines, following directionsSummarising- retellingUse both narrative and expository texts

Elaboration techniquesMaking inferences using prior knowledgeRead out story and analyse one or two important ideasFor each of the ideas create a previous experience question that they have hadCreate a prediction question for eachStudents read and check their predictionsDiscuss predictions and inferential questionsex- Even adults can be afraid of things, share something you know an adult is afraid of,In this story Arun is afraid of something, what is it?

Using QAR For students who find it difficult to find answers that cant be found in the text or those who use their previous experience instead of textQuestion- answer relationship:Are they right here- single sentence, does it need to be put together, on my own or writer and me

Making inferences using evidenceQuestionEvidence from textOwn experienceInferenceHow did Rita feel at lunchHer stomach was growlingSometimes when I have beeSo I think

ImagingStart with single sentences followed by longer pieces. Students read the text and create a mental image which they can drawServes three purposes- fosters understanding, helps retain information and monitor for meaningImages will differ depending on background and prior experience. Do not alter images but ask students to reread or expand images through questioning

Analysing a narrative textVarious story grammars but each has certain essentials- setting, characters, plot.Plot is divided into problem/ main characters goal, principal episodes and resolutionStory maybe action oriented, character consciousnessStory structure can be guided through questions

QuestioningWhen and where does the story take placeWho are the charactersWhat problem does the main character faceWhat does main character do/ what happens to main characterHow is the problem resolvedUsing retelling to assess students understanding and prompt them to analyse. Important to be aware of students culture

Story mapSetting- where and whenCharactersProblemGoalPlotOutcome

Expository textsEnumeration- description without giving cause and effectTime sequenceExplanation processCompare and contrastProblem- solut