ecosystems, their services and disaster risk reduction – examples from coastal areas

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2 nd GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Workshop 28-31 August 2012, Bonn. Ecosystems, their Services and Disaster Risk Reduction – Examples from Coastal Areas. Fabrice Renaud United Nations University – Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn, Germany. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Ecosystems, their Services and Disaster Risk Reduction Examples from Coastal AreasFabrice Renaud

    United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn, Germany2nd GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Workshop 28-31 August 2012, Bonn

  • Disasters Impacts on Development Gains*Source: Ghesquiere & Mahul (2010): FinancialProtectionoftheStateagainstNaturalDisasters:APrimer. Policy Research Working Paper 5429, The World Bank

  • Disasters Impacts on Development Gains (contd)*Source: CumminsandMahul(2009), as quoted in Ghesquiere & Mahul (2010): FinancialProtectionoftheStateagainstNaturalDisasters:APrimer. Policy Research Working Paper 5429, The World Bank

  • Links betweeen disasters and the environmentUNEP & UNISDR (2008)*

  • Hyogo Framework for ActionWorld Conference on Disaster Reduction which was held in 2005 in Kobe5 Priorities for action. Relevant on in our context:Reduce the underlying risk factors2 Relevant activities:Environmental and natural resource management with components that include:Sustainable use and management of ecosystems;Implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches that incorporate disaster risk reduction;Linking disaster risk reduction with existing climate variability and future climate change.Land-use planning and other technical measures with a component on incorporating disaster risk assessment into rural development planning and management.Mid-term review of HFA: least progress what in this Priority for Action at the national level

    *

  • Ecosystem ServicesSource: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC*

  • Exposure: Buffering the Populations2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Following the tsunami, the fact that some ecosystem components had previously been degraded by human interventions was blamed for the damages & losses:Costal vegetation in general and mangroves in particularSand dunesSea grassesCoral reefs

    It was assumed that these features would have protected the population by:Reducing the energy of the wavesReducing the exposure of the populations (increased distance from coastline)*

  • Destruction of Natural BuffersSpecific effects of some ecosystem components are scientifically debated when it comes to the tsunamiPhoto by Marcus Kaplan*

  • Did Natural Features Limit the Impact?Kathiresan & Rajendra. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Sci 65:601-606Kerr et al. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Sci 67:539-541 Performed stepwise regression analysis on data from Kathiresan Conclusion: vegetation area contributes little to explanation of variation in mortalityKathiresan & Rajendra. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Sci 67:542 Did not really address the statistical questions put forward by Kerr et al. but stood by their conclusionsVermaat & Thampanya. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Sci 69:1-3 Performed an ANOVA with distance and elevation as covariates Conclusion: interpretation by Kathiresan and Rajendra holdsVermaat & Thampanya. Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Sci (in press) Erratum Mistake in stats: mortality and property loss were not less behind mangroves*

  • Some Factors at Play but much more Research neededThere are many potential factors to consider incl.:BathymetryTopographyDistance of settlementCoastal vegetationImpact angleDistance from epicentre

    Chatenouy & Pedduzzi:Depth of sea floor at 10kmLength of proximal slope% protection from seagrassDistance from fault line% protection from coralSource: Chatenoux & Peduzzi. Natural Hazards. DOI 10.1007/s11069-006-0015-9*

  • Earthquake and Tsunami impact in Sendai, Wakabayashi Ward, Arahama District*23/09/200317/04/201104/10/201129/03/2012Photo Credit: Tohoku Construction Association . Do not reproduce

  • Coastal Forests in Sendai*Photo Credit: Fabrice Renaud/UNU-EHS Do not reproduce

  • Ecosystem and DRR in the context of the Great East Japan EarthquakeThe Earthquake Disaster Reconstruction Plan (City of Sendai, 2011)Puts some emphasis on the environmentAddresses agricultural issuesRestore the beautiful coastUtilising costal prevention forests explicitly mentioned

    *

  • Ecosystem and DRR in the context of the Great East Japan Earthquake*Source: Sendai City Earthquake Disaster Reconstruction Plan (2011)

  • Devastation in Minamisanriku & plans for relocation*

  • Some points of reflectionExtreme events affecting Indonesia, Sri Lanka & Japan -> lead to different reconstruction processes & thus development pathwaysIn all cases, considering ecosystems in the rebuilding process is a no regrets solutionEcosystems might not stop the next tsunami butThey will mitigate other higher frequency hazardsProvide livelihoods for communities relying on themIncrease recreational/cultural value of the landscapeThe use of ecosystems for DRR can also contributes to:Sustainable developmentReduce cost of (engineered) DRR infrastructureFurther research required to provide adequate advice to policy makers (Renaud, Sudmier-Rieux & Estrella, 2013)*

  • Application of the SUST Model in the Case of the 2004 TsunamiSource: Ingram et al. 2006. Post-disaster recovery dilemmas: challenges in balancing short-term and long-term needs for vulnerability reduction. Environmental Science & policy 9:607-613

  • Data RequirementsGeospatial data are extremely valuable to assess:The presence/state of coastal ecosystems or their components such as sand dunes, coastal vegetation, etc.Tracking changes in such systems (temporal and spatial dimensions) Determining impacts on ecosystems so as to restore ecosystem services as rapidly as possible*

  • Thank YouUNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITYInstitute for Environment and Human Security(UNU-EHS)

    Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10D-53113 Bonn, GermanyPhone: ++ 49 (0) 228 815-0211Fax: ++ 49 (0) 228 815-0299E-Mail: renaud@ehs.unu.eduwww.ehs.unu.edu*

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