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Notes on how to answer AS level Economics 18 mark essays examples

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Discuss the effectiveness of using supply side policies to reduce unemployment. (18)

Supply Side Policies for Reducing UnemploymentSupply side policies deal with more micro-economic issues. They dont aim to boost overall Aggregate Demand, but seek to overcome imperfections in the labour market and reduce unemployment caused by supply side factors. Supply side unemployment includes: Frictional Structural Classical (real wage)Policies to Reduce Supply Side Unemployment1. Education and Training. The aim is to give the long term unemployed new skills which enable them to find jobs in developing industries, e.g. retrain unemployed steel workers to have basic I.T. skills which helps them find work in service sector. However, despite providing education and training schemes, the unemployed may be unable or unwilling to learn new skills. At best it will take several years to reduce unemployment.2. Reduce Power of trades unions. If unions are able to bargain for wages above the market clearing level, they will cause real wage unemployment. In this case reducing influence of trades unions (or reducing Minimum wages) will help solve this real wage unemployment.3. Employment Subsidies. Firms could be given tax breaks or subsidies for taking on long term unemployed. This helps give them new confidence and on the job training. However, it will be quite expensive and it may encourage firms to simply replace current workers with the long term unemployment in order to benefit from the tax breaks.4. Improve Labour Market Flexibility. It is argued that higher structural rates of unemployment in Europe is due to restrictive labour markets which discourages firms from employing workers in the first place. For example, abolishing maximum working weeks and making it easier to hire and fire workers may encourage more job creation. However, increased labour market flexibility could cause a rise in temporary employment and greater job insecurity.5. Stricter Benefit requirements. Governments could take a more pro-active role in making the unemployed accept a job or risk losing benefits. After a certain time period the government could guarantee some kind of public sector job (e.g. cleaning streets). This could significantly reduce unemployment. However, it may mean the government end up employing thousands of people in un-productive tasks which is very expensive. Also, if you make it difficult to claim benefits, you may reduce the claimant count, but not the International Labour force survey. See: measures of unemployment6. Improved Geographical Mobility. Often unemployed is more concentrated in certain regions. To overcome this geographical unemployment, the government could give tax breaks to firms who set up in depressed areas. Alternatively, they can give financial assistance to unemployed workers who move to areas with high employment. (e.g. help with renting in London)

Using AD and AS analysis discuss the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy on the economy. (18)

Expansionary fiscal policy involves government attempts to increase aggregate demand. It will involve higher government spending and / or lower tax. In theory, higher government spending will increase aggregate demand (AD=C+I+G+X-M) and lead to higher economic growth.

Expansionary Fiscal PolicyLower taxes should increase disposable income of consumers leading to higher levels of consumer spending. This should also increase aggregate demand and could lead to higher economic growth.Expansionary Fiscal policy can also lead to inflation because of the higher demand in the economy.Expansionary Fiscal Policy and Government BorrowingExpansionary fiscal policy will lead to an increase in the size of a governments budget deficit. This is a potential problem of expansionary fiscal policy. Higher borrowing could: Cause markets to fear default and push up interest rates on government debt.Evaluation of Expansionary Fiscal PolicyThe impact of expansionary fiscal policy will depend on many factors: What else is happening in the economy? E.g. US tried to cut taxes in 2008. In theory, this lower tax should boost spending. However, the economy is experiencing falling house prices, lower confidence and a shortage of credit; because of all these factors expansionary fiscal policy is relatively ineffective.Crowding Out Does crowding out occur? Expansionary fiscal policy involves higher spending and more government borrowing; it could cause crowding. This means that although the government spend more because they borrow from private sector, the private sector have less to spend and invest. Therefore, overall AD doesnt increase.Timing of Fiscal Policy A key issue of expansionary fiscal policy is the state of the economy. If expansionary fiscal policy is pursued when the economy is close to full capacity, then the increased government borrowing is likely to cause crowding out and / or contribute to higher inflation. However, in a liquidity trap, private saving rates rise rapidly. Therefore, expansionary fiscal policy helps to offset the rise in private sector saving and injects money into circular flow. In a deep recession, expansionary fiscal policy wont cause crowding out or inflation.Supply Side Effects Lower income tax may increase incentive to work Higher government spending on education and training, could increase long-term labour productivity. But, also government spending could be inefficient and wasteful it depends what government spends on.

Discuss the effectiveness of using monetary policy to achieve an increase in aggregate demand. (18) fig. 1Aggregate Demand GraphThis graph shows the effect of contractionary monetary policy, which shifts aggregate demand (AD) to the right.

Key Points Aggregate demand is the sum of consumer spending, government spending, investment, and net exports. The aggregate demand curve assumes that money supply is fixed. The decrease in the money supply is mirrored by an equal decrease in the nominal output, otherwise known as Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The decrease in the money supply will lead to a decrease in consumer spending. This decrease will shift the aggregate demand curve to the right. The increase in the money supply is mirrored by an equal increase in nominal output, or Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The increase in the money supply will lead to an increase in consumer spending. This increase will shift the aggregate demand curve to the left.Terms aggregate demand The the total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level.

fig. 1Aggregate Demand GraphThis graph shows the effect of contractionary monetary policy, which shifts aggregate demand (AD) to the right.

Key Points Aggregate demand is the sum of consumer spending, government spending, investment, and net exports. The aggregate demand curve assumes that money supply is fixed. The decrease in the money supply is mirrored by an equal decrease in the nominal output, otherwise known as Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The decrease in the money supply will lead to a decrease in consumer spending. This decrease will shift the aggregate demand curve to the right. The increase in the money supply is mirrored by an equal increase in nominal output, or Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The increase in the money supply will lead to an increase in consumer spending. This increase will shift the aggregate demand curve to the left.Terms aggregate demand The the total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level.