[Ecological Studies] Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration Volume 191 ||

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<ul><li><p>Ecological Studies,Vol. 191Analysis and Synthesis</p><p>Edited by</p><p>M.M. Caldwell, Logan, USAG. Heldmaier, Marburg, GermanyR.B. Jackson, Durham, USAO.L. Lange, Wrzburg, GermanyH.A. Mooney, Stanford, USAE.-D. Schulze, Jena, GermanyU. Sommer, Kiel, Germany</p></li><li><p>Ecological Studies</p><p>Volumes published since 2002 are listed at the end of this book.</p></li><li><p>1 23</p><p>R. Bobbink B. Beltman J.T.A.Verhoeven D.F. Whigham (Eds.)</p><p>Wetlands: Functioning,Biodiversity Conservation,and Restoration</p><p>With 67 Figures, 6 in Color, and 21 Tables</p></li><li><p>ISSN 0070-8356ISBN-10 3-540-33188-3 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkISBN-13 978-3-540-33188-9 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York</p><p>This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned,specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction onmicrofilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permit-ted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and per-missions for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under theGerman Copyright Law.</p><p>Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Mediaspringer.com</p><p> Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006</p><p>The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even inthe absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulationsand therefore free for general use.</p><p>Editor: Dr. Dieter Czeschlik, Heidelberg, GermanyDesk editor: Dr. Andrea Schlitzberger, Heidelberg, GermanyCover design: WMXDesign GmbH, Heidelberg, GermanyTypesetting and production: Friedmut Krner, Heidelberg, Germany</p><p>31/3152 YK 5 4 3 2 1 0 Printed on acid free paper</p><p>Dr. Roland BobbinkDr. Boudewijn BeltmanProf. Dr. Jos T.A.VerhoevenLandscape EcologyInstitute of Environmental BiologyUtrecht UniversityPO Box 800.843508 TB UtrechtThe Netherlands</p><p>Prof. Dr. Dennis F. WhighamSmithsonian Environmental Research CenterPO Box 28Edgewater, MD 21037USA</p><p>Cover illustration: Large photo: Overview of an undisturbed tidal freshwater wetlandsystem at Jug Bay Sanctuary on the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA (Photo R. Bobbink).Small photos: Top Dense beds of the invasive species Crassostrea gigas, the Pacific oyster,near Yerseke, The Netherlands, after intentional introduction of this species for cultiva-tion (Photo D.W. Thieltges). Middle Restoration of a degraded rich fen by removal of thevegetation and the acidified top layer of the peat, The Netherlands (Photo B. Beltman).Bottom Extensive aerenchyma in the stem of pond weed (Potamogeton pectinatus)(Photo by Summers and Jackson 1994).</p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>The two volumes on Wetlands as a Natural Resource in the book series EcologicalStudies (Volumes 190, 191) are based on the highlights of the 7th INTECOL InternationalWetland Conference in Utrecht, 2530 July 2004. This conference brought together about900 participants from 61 countries, who discussed a very broad range of science-, policy-and management-oriented issues related to wetland ecology and hydrology, wetlandconservation and creation, the impact of global change and wetlands as a resource interms of food, flood protection and water quality enhancement. The participants werefrom different sectors of society, i.e., science and technology (scientists 45 %; PhD stu-dents 20 %), natural resource management (20 %) and policy (15 %). There were 38 sym-posia with invited speakers centered around the nine conference themes. We have giventhe organizers of these symposia the opportunity to produce one chapter for thesebooks with the integrated content of their symposium. This has resulted in 25 chapters,of which 13 are included in Volume 190 under the heading Wetlands and NaturalResource Management and 12 in Volume 191 under the heading Wetlands: Function-ing, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration.</p><p>With these books, we had the aim to summarize the most important recent scientificresults in wetland science, their applications in wetland and water resource managementand their implications for the development of global, national and regional policies inthe perspective of the ever-progressing deterioration of natural wetlands and the majorimpacts that future climate change will have. We hope that the integrated content of thechapters on such a wide scope of different fields in wetland science will serve as a valu-able source of information, both for professionals in environmental science and naturalresource management and for students and young professionals seeking to familiarizethemselves with these fields. We also hope that the interaction between scientists fromdifferent disciplines, resource managers and policy makers will be stimulated by thecontent of these publications.</p><p>We as editors have worked according to a strict time schedule and we want to thankthe authors for their timeliness in producing inspiring manuscripts and the scientistswho have contributed to the peer reviews of the chapters for their active and promptparticipation, which has enabled us to complete our task more or less according to thisschedule. We acknowledge the series editor of the Ecological Studies book series, Prof.Dr. Ulrich Sommer, for his invitation to produce these volumes as one of the outcomes ofthe INTECOL Conference. We also thank Dr. Andrea Schlitzberger of Springer for heradvice and help.We would like to take the opportunity to thank all key people who madethe conference into such a success. In particular we want to thank Prof. Dr. EugeneTurner and the other members of the INTECOL Wetlands Working group, as well as the</p></li><li><p>International and National Scientific Committees for their support. We are mostindebted to the team that organized the conference, in particular the inner circle, FredKnol, Ren Kwant, Nienke Pot and Miranda Motshagen. The members of the LandscapeEcology Group at Utrecht University are thanked for their enormous efforts during theconference.</p><p>These two volumes are the most tangible, durable result of the conference. It is ourwish that they will find their way to wetland professionals and students worldwide andwill contribute to the wise use and conservation of the still large wetland resources thatremain on our planet.</p><p>Utrecht, June 2006</p><p>The Editors Roland Bobbink,Boudewijn Beltman,</p><p>Jos T.A. Verhoeven,Dennis F. Whigham</p><p>These two volumes are major contributions from a well-run meeting inspired by the col-legiality and good will of the hosts. This meeting sparked professionalism through theexpression of the finer parts of Dutch culture and, indeed, of all cultures. The 7th Inter-national Wetland Conference, like the preceding meetings, was successful because peo-ple care about living systems i.e., people, landscapes, science culture, political struc-tures, birds, etc. as they go about trying to make things a little better and a little soonerthan when wetlands were first appreciated in their collective minds. The successes fromthe meetings, exemplified by these two volumes, is partly because they enhance the pos-sibilities for clarity and develop a strong scientific enterprise amidst the interactions ofpeople in neutral spaces and a sometimes strong gradient of personalities and cultures.We never quite know ahead of time what the results of the meetings will be, although ithas always been wonderful to see them evolve to closure.</p><p>It is humbling to know how small things influence others, which is a lesson in beingcareful, thoughtful and open. These efforts and successes are an explicit recognition ofthe interdependency of our discipline interests, but also the fabric of human interactionsthrough politics, science, economics, etc. This interdependency suggests that beinginvolved in wetland science and management is a great way to improve the quality of thenatural world, but also society. The world needs, whether it knows it or not, the expertiseand clear thinking of experts of general and detailed understanding to contribute to thesocial good. These two volumes do exactly that. Kudos to the Editors!</p><p>R. Eugene Turner, ChairOn behalf of the INTECOL Wetland Working Group</p><p>PrefaceVI</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>1 Wetland Functioning in Relation to Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration . . . . . . . . 1R. Bobbink, D.F. Whigham, B. Beltman,and J.T.A. Verhoeven</p><p>1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Functioning of Plants and Animals in Wetlands . . . . . . . 21.3 Biodiversity Conservation and Wetlands . . . . . . . . . . . 61.4 Ecological Restoration of Wetlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.5 Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12</p><p>Section I: Functioning of Plants and Animals in Wetlands</p><p>2 Plant Survival in Wet Environments: Resilienceand Escape Mediated by Shoot Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 15M.B. Jackson</p><p>2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 How Excess Water Threatens Plant Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.1 Excluding and Trapping Effects of Water . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.3 The Energy Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3 Resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3.1 Oxygen Shortage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3.2 Shortage of Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4 Escape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26</p></li><li><p>2.4.1 Aerobic Shoot Extension (the Aerobic Escape) . . . . . . . . 262.4.2 Anaerobic Shoot Extension (the Anaerobic Escape) . . . . . 292.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32</p><p>3 Center Stage: The Crucial Role of Macrophytes in RegulatingTrophic Interactions in Shallow Lake Wetlands . . . . . . . 37R.L. Burks, G. Mulderij, E. Gross, I. Jones, L. Jacobsen,E. Jeppesen, and E. van Donk</p><p>3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373.2 Central Position of Aquatic Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . 383.2.1 Central Themes: Zooplankton Depend </p><p>on Macrophytes as Habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.2.2 Central Themes: Chemical Ecology Spans Trophic Levels . . 423.2.3 Central Themes: Impacts of GrazerEpiphyton Interactions </p><p>with Macrophytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.2.4 Central Themes: Prevalance of Fish Influence </p><p>in Shallow Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493.3 In the Wings: Research Areas Worthy of Attention . . . . . . 513.3.1 Predictability of Macrophyte Function </p><p>in Trophic Interactions Across a Climatic Gradient . . . . . 513.3.2 Relative Importance of Chemical Ecology </p><p>Across Trophic Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523.3.3 Disproportional Impacts of Certain Invertebrates </p><p>and Exotic Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523.4 Returning to Center Stage: Macrophytes </p><p>are Common Players in Trophic Interactions . . . . . . . . . 53References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53</p><p>4 Biological Invasions: Concepts to Understand and Predict a Global Threat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61G. van der Velde, S. Rajagopal, M. Kuyper-Kollenaar,A. bij de Vaate, D.W. Thieltges, and H.J. MacIsaac</p><p>4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614.2 What is a Biological Invasion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624.3 Impacts of Biological Invasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634.3.1 Ecological Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634.3.2 Evolutionary Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644.3.3 Economic Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64</p><p>ContentsVIII</p></li><li><p>4.3.4 Human Health Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.3.5 Measuring Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.4 Examples of Biological Invasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664.5 Understanding and Predicting Biological Invasions . . . . . 684.5.1 Invading Species Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.5.2 Invaded Ecosystem Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.5.3 Relationship Between Invader and Invaded Ecosystem </p><p>(Key-Lock Approach) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774.5.4 Invasion Processes Differentiated in Time . . . . . . . . . . 794.5.5 Comparative Historical Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834.6 Shadows on the Prospects of Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . 844.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85</p><p>Section II: Conservation and Management of Wetlands</p><p>5 Wetland Conservation and Management:Questions for Science and Society in Applying the Ecosystem Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93E. Maltby</p><p>5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935.2 Wetlands at the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935.3 Recognising a New Paradigm in Ecosystem Management . . 975.4 The Ecosystem Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975.4.1 Principle 1: The Management of Land, Water </p><p>and Living Resources is a Question of Societal Choice . . . . 995.4.2 Principle 3: Ecosystem Managers Should Consider </p><p>the Effects of Their Activities on Adjacent and Other Ecosystems; and Principle 7: The Ecosystem Approach Should be Undertaken at the Appropriate Scale . 103</p><p>5.4.3 Principle 4: There is a Need to Understand the Ecosystem in an Economic Context . . . . . . . . . . . . 107</p><p>5.4.4 Principle 9: Management must Recognise that Change is Inevitable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109</p><p>5.4.5 Principle 10: The Ecosystem Approach Should Seek the Appropriate Balance Between Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111</p><p>5.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114</p><p>Contents IX</p></li><li><p>6 Wetlands in the Tidal Freshwater Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . 117A. Barendregt, D.F. Whigham, P. Meire, A.H. Baldwin,and S. Van Damme</p><p>6.1 Characteristics of Tidal Freshwater Wetlands . . . . . . . . . 1176.2 Human Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216.2.1 Historical Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216.2.2 Water Quality Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1226.3 Biological Variation Within the Freshwater Tidal Ecosystem 1226.3.1 Vegetation Zonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236.3.2 The Vegetation of European Tidal Freshwater Wetlands . . . 1246.3.3 The Vegetation of North American Tidal Freshwater </p><p>Wetland...</p></li></ul>

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