Ecological Geneticsby Leslie A. Real

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  • Ecological Genetics by Leslie A. RealReview by: John GrahameJournal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 64, No. 5 (Sep., 1995), p. 670Published by: British Ecological SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/5815 .Accessed: 02/05/2014 05:24

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  • of where you start from. Overall, this volume is a valuable and stimulating series of reviews; anyone interested in evolution will find much of use in it.

    J. GRAHAME

    Leslie A. Real (Ed.) (1994) Ecological Genetics. Pp. xv + 238. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, ?40 (clothback). ?18.50 (paperback).

    In 1991, five ecological geneticists were invited to the

    University of North Carolina to address the topics of the status, future and exciting potential in their field.

    They did this via the device of two 'talks' each - one

    giving an overview of an area within the field, the other directed to a specific research topic. Based on the 10 contributions, Leslie Real has edited a volume of 10 chapters, two each from Montgomery Slatkin, Sara Via, Michael Lynch, Janis Antonovics and

    Joseph Travis. In his introduction, Real starts with Ford's definition of the field as concerning wild popu- lations in their environments and the investigation of 'real time' evolution. Real singles out the development of molecular techniques and advances in the statistical

    analysis and interpretation of data as fundamentally important in underpinning recent progress. Slatkin's

    chapters address gene flow and population structure, and the cladistic analysis of DNA sequence data from subdivided populations. Via deals with phenotypic plasticity, and with local adaptation in a clonal her- bivore (the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum); Lynch with neutral models of phenotypic evolution and the evo-

    lutionary genetics of the water flea Daphnia; Antono- vics with the genetics of host-parasite interactions in

    general and in the Silene-Ustilago system (a perennial herb and a smut-fungus); and Travis with life-history traits and Poecilia latipinna (the sailfin molly). Each

    chapter has its own independent set of references, there is a global index at the end of the volume.

    Ecological Genetics has been edited to a high stan-

    dard, the contributors really do fulfil the brief set out

    by the editor, giving a general overview and then some detailed consideration of the chosen topics. Different readers will find chapters of more or less interest, but the volume as a whole is a valuable compilation of ideas on where we are and how the field is developing.

    JOHN GRAHAME

    Klaus Rohde (1993) Ecology of Marine Parasites. An Introduction to Marine Parasitology. 2nd edn Pp. xiv + 298. CAB International, Wallingford. ISBN 0-85198-845-8.

    of where you start from. Overall, this volume is a valuable and stimulating series of reviews; anyone interested in evolution will find much of use in it.

    J. GRAHAME

    Leslie A. Real (Ed.) (1994) Ecological Genetics. Pp. xv + 238. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, ?40 (clothback). ?18.50 (paperback).

    In 1991, five ecological geneticists were invited to the

    University of North Carolina to address the topics of the status, future and exciting potential in their field.

    They did this via the device of two 'talks' each - one

    giving an overview of an area within the field, the other directed to a specific research topic. Based on the 10 contributions, Leslie Real has edited a volume of 10 chapters, two each from Montgomery Slatkin, Sara Via, Michael Lynch, Janis Antonovics and

    Joseph Travis. In his introduction, Real starts with Ford's definition of the field as concerning wild popu- lations in their environments and the investigation of 'real time' evolution. Real singles out the development of molecular techniques and advances in the statistical

    analysis and interpretation of data as fundamentally important in underpinning recent progress. Slatkin's

    chapters address gene flow and population structure, and the cladistic analysis of DNA sequence data from subdivided populations. Via deals with phenotypic plasticity, and with local adaptation in a clonal her- bivore (the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum); Lynch with neutral models of phenotypic evolution and the evo-

    lutionary genetics of the water flea Daphnia; Antono- vics with the genetics of host-parasite interactions in

    general and in the Silene-Ustilago system (a perennial herb and a smut-fungus); and Travis with life-history traits and Poecilia latipinna (the sailfin molly). Each

    chapter has its own independent set of references, there is a global index at the end of the volume.

    Ecological Genetics has been edited to a high stan-

    dard, the contributors really do fulfil the brief set out

    by the editor, giving a general overview and then some detailed consideration of the chosen topics. Different readers will find chapters of more or less interest, but the volume as a whole is a valuable compilation of ideas on where we are and how the field is developing.

    JOHN GRAHAME

    Klaus Rohde (1993) Ecology of Marine Parasites. An Introduction to Marine Parasitology. 2nd edn Pp. xiv + 298. CAB International, Wallingford. ISBN 0-85198-845-8.

    of where you start from. Overall, this volume is a valuable and stimulating series of reviews; anyone interested in evolution will find much of use in it.

    J. GRAHAME

    Leslie A. Real (Ed.) (1994) Ecological Genetics. Pp. xv + 238. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, ?40 (clothback). ?18.50 (paperback).

    In 1991, five ecological geneticists were invited to the

    University of North Carolina to address the topics of the status, future and exciting potential in their field.

    They did this via the device of two 'talks' each - one

    giving an overview of an area within the field, the other directed to a specific research topic. Based on the 10 contributions, Leslie Real has edited a volume of 10 chapters, two each from Montgomery Slatkin, Sara Via, Michael Lynch, Janis Antonovics and

    Joseph Travis. In his introduction, Real starts with Ford's definition of the field as concerning wild popu- lations in their environments and the investigation of 'real time' evolution. Real singles out the development of molecular techniques and advances in the statistical

    analysis and interpretation of data as fundamentally important in underpinning recent progress. Slatkin's

    chapters address gene flow and population structure, and the cladistic analysis of DNA sequence data from subdivided populations. Via deals with phenotypic plasticity, and with local adaptation in a clonal her- bivore (the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum); Lynch with neutral models of phenotypic evolution and the evo-

    lutionary genetics of the water flea Daphnia; Antono- vics with the genetics of host-parasite interactions in

    general and in the Silene-Ustilago system (a perennial herb and a smut-fungus); and Travis with life-history traits and Poecilia latipinna (the sailfin molly). Each

    chapter has its own independent set of references, there is a global index at the end of the volume.

    Ecological Genetics has been edited to a high stan-

    dard, the contributors really do fulfil the brief set out

    by the editor, giving a general overview and then some detailed consideration of the chosen topics. Different readers will find chapters of more or less interest, but the volume as a whole is a valuable compilation of ideas on where we are and how the field is developing.

    JOHN GRAHAME

    Klaus Rohde (1993) Ecology of Marine Parasites. An Introduction to Marine Parasitology. 2nd edn Pp. xiv + 298. CAB International, Wallingford. ISBN 0-85198-845-8.

    This volume begins with a brief introduction to the nature of parasitism and some of the specialized ter- This volume begins with a brief introduction to the nature of parasitism and some of the specialized ter- This volume begins with a brief introduction to the nature of parasitism and some of the specialized ter-

    minology relating to parasites and their hosts. This is

    supported by a more comprehensive glossary at the end of the book. The second chapter is a systematic survey of marine parasites commencing with the pro- tists, passing phylum by phylum through the animal

    kingdom, and finishing with the parasitic chordates, such as the males of ceratioid anglerfish. Chapters 3 and 4 are short summaries of the variety of hosts of marine parasites and of the relatively few reported cases of marine hyperparasitism, respectively. The fifth chapter comprises an overview of the general adaptations of parasitic animals, such as their rela-

    tively small size, high fecundity and dispersal abilities. Also included are introductions to infection mech-

    anisms, reproductive strategies and dispersion patterns. In chapter 6 Rohde examines host-parasite interactions, including behavioural reactions, such as

    cleaning symbioses, immunity and tissue reactions, the effects of the parasite on the host individuals and

    populations, and the phenomenon of co-evolution.

    Chapter 7 is devoted to a discussion of the ecological niche concept as applied to parasites. Niche dimen- sions of a parasite include host specificity, micro- habitat distribution and various host factors. The con-

    cept of niche restriction by extrinsic and intrinsic factors is examined. Rohde restates his view that the

    only intrinsic factor that might lead to niche restric- tion in parasites is enhancement of the chances to mate. The structure of parasite communities in marine animals is considered in chapter 8, using a few specific examples. Latitudinal gradients in diversity, in inten-

    sity of infection, in niche width and in reproductive strategy are all discussed. Rohde concludes that only accelerated evolution at low latitudes can explain the

    greater diversity in the tropics. Chapter 9 considers

    biogeographical factors affecting parasite faunas. The three-dimensional nature of the oceans is considered and the parasite fauna of the deep sea is shown to be

    relatively impoverished. The effect of host migration is discussed and some examples of the use of parasites as 'biological tags' for host populations are provided. Chapter 10 deals with marine parasites of economic

    significance, either because of their effect on com- mercial fisheries and mariculture, or because they infect man. In the final chapter, under the heading future research, Rohde identifies areas such as spe- ciation and phylogenetic studies that should prove fruitful for future study.

    The first edition of this book was highly successful because it filled a gap in the market by covering most of the basic principles of ecology and giving examples of their application to marine parasites. The second edition is not radically different from the first but it does update and extend most of the chapters. New

    examples are added or substituted in the text and the work has been generally updated. It is still a very

    minology relating to parasites and their hosts. This is

    supported by a more comprehensive glossary at the end of the book. The second chapter is a systematic survey of marine parasites commencing with the pro- tists, passing phylum by phylum through the animal

    kingdom, and finishing with the parasitic chordates, such as the males of ceratioid anglerfish. Chapters 3 and 4 are short summaries of the variety of hosts of marine parasites and of the relatively few reported cases of marine hyperparasitism, respectively. The fifth chapter comprises an overview of the general adaptations of parasitic animals, such as their rela-

    tively small size, high fecundity and dispersal abilities. Also included are introductions to infection mech-

    anisms, reproductive strategies and dispersion patterns. In chapter 6 Rohde examines host-parasite interactions, including behavioural reactions, such as

    cleaning symbioses, immunity and tissue reactions, the effects of the parasite on the host individuals and

    populations, and the phenomenon of co-evolution.

    Chapter 7 is devoted to a discussion of the ecological niche concept as applied to parasites. Niche dimen- sions of a parasite include host specificity, micro- habitat distribution and various host factors. The con-

    cept of niche restriction by extrinsic and intrinsic factors is examined. Rohde restates his view that the

    only intrinsic factor that might lead to niche restric- tion in parasites is enhancement of the chances to mate. The structure of parasite communities in marine animals is considered in chapter 8, using a few specific examples. Latitudinal gradients in diversity, in inten-

    sity of infection, in niche width and in reproductive strategy are all discussed. Rohde concludes that only accelerated evolution at low latitudes can explain the

    greater diversity in the tropics. Chapter 9 considers

    biogeographical factors affecting parasite faunas. The three-dimensional nature of the oceans is considered and the parasite fauna of the deep sea is shown to be

    relatively impoverished. The effect of host migration is discussed and some examples of the use of parasites as 'biological tags' for host populations are provided. Chapter 10 deals with marine parasites of economic

    significance, either because of their effect on com- mercial fisheries and mariculture, or because they infect man. In the final chapter, under the heading future research, Rohde identifies areas such as spe- ciation and phylogenetic studies that should prove fruitful for future study.

    The first edition of this book was highly successful because it filled a gap in the market by covering most of the basic principles of ecology and giving examples of their application to marine parasites. The second edition is not radically different from the first but it does update and extend most of the chapters. New

    examples are added or substituted in the text and the work has been generally updated. It is still a very

    minology relating to parasites and their hosts. This is

    supported by a more comprehensive glossary at the end of the book. The second chapter is a systematic survey of mari...